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Full text of "New Zealand : for the emigrant, invalid, and tourist"

NEW ZEALAND 



EMIGRANT. INVALID. AND TOUBTST, 



170 



174 



178 



Three. KTVJ-S If 



36|- 



MJIW ZEA&AftD 

stowing 
CITMATIC ZONES 



English Miles 



-3** 



-WiOihg 




166 longitude East 170 of Greenwich 



174 



.; S.Lovr&Co. 



NEW ZEALAND 



FOR THE 



EMIGRANT, INVALID, AND TOURIST. 



M.D. Usiv. EDIN.; M.R.C.S. ESG.; M.D. NEW ZEALAND UNIVERSITY; F.R.G.S. 
FELL. ROYAL EOT. Soc. EDIN. ; MEMBER ROYAL MED. Soc. EDIN. ; 
FELLOW OF THE ROYAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE, &c. 

AUTHOR OP 

" The Plants of Scripture," " The Poison Oak of California," 
"Shakspeare and Euphuism," and other Essays. 



' The climate's delicate, the air most sweet, 

'Fertile the Isle.' 

WINTER'S TALE, III., ). 



LONDON: 
SAMPSON LOW, MAESTON, SEARLE & RIVINGTON, 

LIMITED, 

5t. Ehmstan's Jtjouse, 

FETTER LANE, FLEET STREET. 

1890. 

[All rights reserved.] 



LONDON" : 
PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, 

hTAMFORI) STREET AKD CHAUING CUOS3. 



Co 

SIR WILLIAM FOX, K.O.M.G., J.P., ETC., 

FORMERLY PREMIER OF NEW ZEALAND, 

AND 

LADY FOX, 

THIS LITTLE BOOK IS DEDICATED, BY PERMISSION, IN 
GRATEFUL ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF MUCH KINDNESS, 

BV 

THE AUTHOK. 



149103 



/^ 



PREFACE. 



IF an apology be deemed necessary for adding another 
volume to the ever-increasing mass of literature relating 
to the New Zealand of to-day it must be found in the 
originality of the scope and plan of chapters ii. and v. 
of this little book. In these have been set forth with 
care and original research fruits of the author's nine 
years' professional work in the colony the various 
Climatic Zones into which New Zealand viewed as a 
Health-Kesort is divisible, which are here classified for 
the first time; and a fully detailed account of the 
characters and therapeutic achievements, up to date, of 
the principal Thermal Springs of the North Island. 

The work of accurate investigation and trial of these 
springs must go on all the time ; and it may be many 
years before a book on the Thermal Springs of New 
Zealand equal in value, for example, to " Sutro on the 
Spas of Europe" can be produced. But I venture 
to hope that this handbook, imperfect as it is, may 
serve both the medical profession and the public, as a 
useful introduction to the climatology and balneology 
of New Zealand. The original title of the work was to 
have been " Nine Years in New Zealand," and more 
than half of the MS. was written before the present 
.title was adopted ; therefore readers will understand, 
and, I trust, pardon, any occasional incongruity between 
the personal and descriptive styles. With a view of 
rendering the book useful to the three classes of persons 
specially addressed, each chapter has been made as 
nearly as possible complete in itself. The emigrant 



viii PREFACE. 

will find chapters L, iv., viii., ix., and xi. suited to his 
requirements ; the invalid will be specially interested 
in chapters ii., iv., and v. ; while the tourist may study 
the whole book profitably, except the last chapter, which 
is written for medical men alone. 

Perhaps the critics may be reminded that the author 
is fully conscious of many sins, both of omission and 
commission, his valid excuse being that the MS. was 
prepared amid many professional interruptions, and in 
a provincial city far away from the central offices and 
libraries where the latest and best information relating 
to New Zealand is from time to time received. 

The legislative and financial problems now being- 
worked out in New Zealand merit more attention from 
publicists than they receive. If the accomplished 
author of " Greater Britain " the book which first 
inspired me with a desire to visit the colonies should 
bring out a new edition, I hope that he will devote a 
large section to New Zealand. 

It seems but fitting that I should here acknowledge 
with gratitude the renovation of my health, due, under 
the kind providence of a gracious God, to the health- 
giving New Zealand air, and that for both my wife and 
myself .1 should express our warmest thanks to our 
many Auckland friends for all their kindness, sym- 
pathy, and generous hospitality during our residence 
there. 

That New Zealand will very soon completely emerge 
from her financial cloud into the full sunshine of 
prosperity, and that she will become in time the 
wealthiest and most influential, as she is now the 
healthiest and most adventurous colony of the Austra- 
lasian group, is the confident hope and expectation of 

THE AUTHOR. 
CASXIXG STREET, LIVERPOOL. 
November 25th, 1889. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

MIGRATION, EMIGRATION, AND IMMIGRATION. 

PAGE 

The Anglo-Saxon race inclined to wander The colonies and 
the " globe-trotter " Centrifugal and centripetal laws of 
emigration Necessity of emigration for the British 
Restrictions imposed by the United States gives the 
colonies a chance New Zealand the best field Classes 
of emigrants not wanted out there Who are wanted 
Who are likely to succeed Outfit Various routes to the 
colony Ordinary rates of wages Cost of living .. .. 1 

CHAPTER II. 

THE CLIMATES OF NEW ZEALAND, GENERAL AND LOCAL. 

The differences of Australian and New Zealand climates not 
generally known to consulting physicians The colonies 
offer advantages over other health-resorts General clima- 
tology and meteorology of New Zealand Effects of the 
mountain ranges and forests The colony divisible into 
lour climatic zones : 1. North Cape to Napier ; 2. Napier 
to Hurunui ; 3. Hurunui to Stewart's Island ; 4. Alpine 
] 'lateau of North Island Local climatology of Auckland, 
Whangarei, Napier, Palmerston, Nelson, Picton, Taranaki, 
Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin, Queenstown, Inver- 
car^ill Cautions to Invalids General Summary .. 14 

CHAPTER III. 

THE MAORIS AND THEIR CUSTOMS. 

The name, origin, and features of the Maori Tattooing 
Language, with prose and poetical specimens Rhyme for 
pronunciation History of Old NeWi Zealand Judge 



CONTENTS. 

FACE 

Maning Causes of their decline Customs of tapu, muru, 
utu, explained Ceremonies of korero, haka, taivji 
Meaning of mana Bishop Selwyn on the Maori character 
Old Mohi in " Our Maoris " Conversions to Christianity 
Chivalry in war Future of the Maori race . . . . 39 



CHxiPTER IV. 

AUCKLAND, THE NAPLES OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Its position, geographical and commercial importance The 
" Corinth of the south " Third city in Australasia by 
population Sheltered Waitemata Inlet Graving-docks, 
large and small Picturesque approach to the city Public 
buildings Grey collection of MSS. City government 
Newspapers Developments of art, music, science, and 
literature Eecreations Amusing anecdote of the para- 
chutist Ostrich farm The schoolboy's account of the 
bird Observance of Sunday Acclimatization of fauna 
(birds, fishes, &c.) Growth of Auckland during nine years. 57 

CHAPTER V. 

THE MINEBAL SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Seventy-three already analyzed Arranged in five classes 
Description of the three oldest spas : Waiwera, Ta Aroha, 
Eotorua The new town of Uotorua Its special arrange- 
ments for visitors Priest's Bath Madame Rachel Blue 
Bath Pain killer Lake House Baths Oil Bath 
Wonders of Tikitere Hot waterfall, " Te Kute " Diseases 
cured by the above Leprosy probably curable by them 
The " season " for Rotorua thermal treatment Advice 
to the Invalid, the Tourist, and the Invalid-Tourist .. 74 

CHAPTER VI. 

THE WONDERLANDS OF NEW ZEALAND I EXCURSIONS TO THE HOT 
LAKES AND TERRACES, AND TO THE WEST COAST SOUNDS. 

Excursions to Rotonia via Tauranga in December, 1880 
Tauranga and its sunset Oropi Beauty of the forest 
along the Gorge Road Ohinemutu Native " loafers " 
Bathing, laundry-work, and cooking al fresco Tikitapu 
Bush Visit to Wairoa, Lake Tarawera, and the Terraces 



CONTENTS. XI 

PAGE 

White Terrace surpasses the Taj Mahal Geysers and 
fumaroles Pink Terrace and luxurious bathing Return 
in canoe down the swift hot stream Kaiwaka Fate of 
the Tuhourangis Scenery of the Middle Island: lakes, 
mountains, glaciers, fjords Lakes Wakatipu, Te Anan, and 
Manapouri Annual trip by steamship Tarawera to the 
West Coast Sounds My visit !in January, 1884 Excel- 
lent arrangements Port Chalmers Cuttle Cove Dusky 
Sound and Mr. Doherty Spinach discovered by Cook in 
Dusky Sound Wet Jacket Arm Hector's theory of the 
formation of these fjords Caswell Bay and its marble 
Milford Sound : the Narrows, Mitre Peak, Bowen Falls 
Ascent of Mitre Peak Sutherland the explorer Suther- 
land Falls, 1900 feet Reischek and his wonderful dog 
Return to the Bluff and Port Chalmers Entertainments 
on board .. .. .. .. .. .. 97 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE VOLCANIC ERUPTION OF MOUNT TAKAWERA. 

New Zealand a link in the chain of Pacific Ocean volcanoes 
Principal volcanic eruptions from 1883 to 1886 Upheaval 
of North Island Great fissure in the earth's crust, running 
south-west to north-east Taupo volcanic zone : its craters 
and hot springs The eruption of Mount Tarawera on 
June 10, 1886 Premonitory signs Results of the erup- 
tion Loss of life Deaths of C. A. Haszard, E. A. 
Bainbridge, and Tuhoto The Wonderland that remains 
Waiotapu Valley New Sinter Terraces forming Pink 
Cauldron and Crow's Nest Geyser of Wairakei Mount 
Horo-Horo Lake Taupo The new grand tour : Te 
Aroha, Rotorua, Ruapehu National Park, to the Upper 
Wanganui .. .. .. 120 



CHAPTER VIII. 

SELF-GOVERNMENT, AND TUE SETTLEMENT OF THE LAND. 

History of the colony Treaty of Waitangi, 1840 Several 
centres of colonization Changes in the constitution 
Responsible self-government granted in 1853 Governors 
of New Zealand from 1840 to 1889 Premiers from 1853 
to 1889 Premiers I have known Beneficent legislation 
How the Colonial Debt was incurred Absolute solvency 



II CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

of the colony Laws regulating sale, lease, and transfer 
of Crown, lands Success of perpetual leasing, and of the 
village settlements Some previous training necessary for 
success as a farmer .. .. .. .. .. .. 136 



CHAPTER IX. 

PUBLIC WORKS AND INSTITUTIONS. 

Their growth Nourished on loans Eeactions and commercial 
depression Improving prospects and return of prosperity 
Churches Education : primary, secondary, and university 
New Zealand University : its statutes, &c. Auckland 
University College Technical School Otago Medical 
School Lincoln School of Agriculture The press of New 
Zealand Hospitals and asylums Police and prisons 
Public works Post-office and other Government depart- 
ments Telephones Government insurance Public trus- 
tee Assignees in bankruptcy Friendly and building 
societies Sailors' Homes and Rests .. 150 



CHAPTER X. 

PRODUCTIONS AND INDUSTRIES. 

Natural products evolve certain industries The growth of 
fifty years Exports now exceed imports in value Statis- 
tics of the export of wool, meat (frozen and canned), 
skins and hides, dairy produce, wheat and cereals, timber, 
kauri gum, gold and silver, other metals, building stone, 
coal, native flax, fungus, tan bark, petroleum, train-oil 
Minor industries Reasons for the high tariff Policy of 
bonuses for new cultures and industries The working- 
man of New Zealand and the Chinese W. N. Blair on 
labour and capital Patent law Inventiveness of New 
Zealanders Humane legislation for women and children 
in factories .. .. .. .. .. .. 178 



CHAPTER XL 

SOCIAL LIFE IN NEW ZEALAND. 

Its heartiness and unconventionality Tourist's mistakes and 
exaggerations Ups and downs Ruling forces in society 
Nouveaux riches The highest education and culture of 



CONTENTS. Xlll 

PAGE 

England appreciated by colonial parents Neighbourly 
kindness Fire ! Hospitality Effects of flesh-eating on 
character The " larrikin " The cures for " larrikinism " 
Recreation out of doors : cricket, football, tennis, cycling, 
volunteering Indoor amusements: rinking, lectures, chess, 
Shakspeare and dramatic clubs Music : concerts, amateur 
vocalists, professional teacher A musical colony Art, 
Artists, and Art Exhibitions Literature Amateur 
science Happy and unhappy homes Drinking customs 
" Lambing down " The slain by drink New Zealand 
the country for a true home .. .. .. .. 197 



CHAPTER XII. 

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCES. 

Openings for practice, and prospects of new comers Age at 
which to emigrate Outfit Registration Fees in New 
Zealand Clubs Working expenses of practice Diseases 
prevalent among the Maoris Native remedies Singular 
mode of resuscitation Letter from missionary on causes 
of decrease of natives Diseases of the colonists Typhoid 
fever : cause, prevention, and mortality The Exanthemata 
Diphtheria maligna cases Poisoning from tinned meat 
and from Ptomaines Phthisis pulmonalis Cases arrested 
by New Zealand climate Phthisis laryngea Bronchitis 
and cynanche benefited by Auckland climate Entozoa 
common Caries of teeth No Ague in New Zealand 
Case of Katipo bite Diseases arising from abuse of 
alcohol and tobacco Lunacy in New Zealand Vital 
statistics Conclusion . . 219 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



MAP OF NEW ZEALAND .... To face Title-page. 

VIEW OF AUCKLAND HAEBOUR AND NORTH 

SHORE page 24 

MAP OF THE HOT LAKE DISTRICT 97 

MAP OF THE WEST COAST SOUNDS 108 

MAP OF THE TAUPO VOLCANIC ZONE 120 



NEW ZEALAND 



EMIGRANT, INVALID, AND TOURIST. 

CHAPTER I. 

MIGRATION, EMIGRATION, AND IMMIGRATION. 

The Anglo-Saxon race inclined to wander The Colonies and the 
" globe-trotter " Centrifugal and Centripetal laws of Emigration 
Necessity of emigration for the British Restrictions imposed 
by the United States give the colonies a chance New Zealand 
the best field Classes of immigrants not wanted out there 
Who are wanted Who are likely to succeed Outfit Various 
routes to New Zealand Ordinary rates of wages Cost of 
living. 

THAT man is a migratory animal is evident from the 
history of the past, and the development of coloniza- 
tion in the present day. Of all races of mankind the 
Anglo-Saxon race has shown that a genuine love for 
home can co-exist with an ardent desire to explore new 
regions, to conquer the difficulties presented both by 
the barbarian inhabitant and by Nature, and even to 
make a new and a permanent settlement in lands far 
remote from his native soil. 

Bound as this great race is, some day, to dominate 
the civilized world, it behoves the stay-at-home Briton, 
who, at his comfortable fireside, may read the news of 
the globe, to keep himself well informed of the cha- 
racteristics, resources, and progress of that " Greater 
Britain " upon which the sun never sets. 

This is essentially a travelling age ; and the English- 
man of wealth and culture, who formerly used to confine 

B 



2 NEW ZEALAND. 

his excursions to the continent of Europe, now takes 
bolder and longer flights. He crosses the " herring 
pond " to the United States and Canada ; he rushes 
down to Cape Colony in eighteen days ; in three weeks 
from leaving London he finds himself in India ; and 
even the far-off Antipodes are becoming known to him. 
The term " globe-trotter " has been coined to suit him 
the origin of this word I leave to Dr. Murray to find 
out which admirably conveys the manner of the hasty 
tourist. Now that " Thomas Cook and Sons " have 
annexed New Zealand, no great social distinction will 
attach to the traveller who has " done " that country ; 
but its beauties will become much more extensively 
known, and they are on such a scale that nothing can 
vulgarise them. 

The " globe-trotter " is sometimes seized with a desire 
to leave his foggy Albion, and settle for the rest of his 
days in some balmy Eden of the Southern Pacific, or 
some Neapolitan-like city, such as Auckland, and when 
he carries out this idea he seldom regrets his choice. 

Feeling grateful to New Zealand for the renovation of 
my health, which was much broken down in 1879, and 
having made many careful observations of the me- 
teorology, mineral springs, and various Zones of Climate 
of that country, I have incorporated these and other 
results of nine years' experience in this little Hand- 
book for the Emigrant, Tourist, and Invalid. In a 
work of this scope it is not desirable to enter at length 
into the native question, colonial history, colonial 
politics, or debatable problems of political economy. I 
have only introduced such matters to such an amount 
as would make the book complete. Such features of 
social life as are discussed in these pages are treated 
candidly and impartially, with a sincere desire to 

" Naught extenuate 
Nor aught set down in malice." 

It is my conviction, based upon a happy experience, 
that derives some value from my having resided in the 
course of my life in three quarters of the world, that 



MIGRATION, EMIGRATION, AND IMMIGRATION. 3 

there is no country over which our grand old flag waves, 
where a Briton can make as comfortable a home as 
he can in New Zealand. If an invalid, he must make 
a careful selection of the locality ; and this work will 
supply the information needed. 

But let us turn to the question of emigration, and the 
need for it. 

In the present day we may clearly distinguish two 
general laws regulating emigration and immigration 
a centrifugal law and a centripetal law. By the force 
of the former law, the Englishman, a citizen of the 
greatest maritime empire of all time, is impelled to 
explore unknown seas and lands, to colonize and to 
trade in all parts of the world. Geography being now 
taught in schools more intelligently than of yore, and 
books of thrilling adventure firing the imagination of 
youth, boys and girls become familiar with the de- 
scription of foreign countries, and long to visit them. 
A love for travel is characteristic of the two great 
branches of the Anglo-Saxon race ; but the Englishman 
will colonize, while the American merely stays for a 
time. Germany is now waking up to her need of 
colonies, incited doubtless by the irresistible power 
of this Centrifugal Law, which 1 has gained for little 
England her glorious colonial empire. 

On the other hand there is a Centripetal Law, which 
counterbalances, but only to a slight extent, the 
Centrifugal Law. When the Briton has prospered in the 
Colonies, in the United States, or in foreign countries, he 
often retires to London or to some part of his native 
country to end his days. Or, not being able to leave 
the land of his adoption, he sends his sons and 
daughters "Home" to be educated. Every year a 
larger number of highly cultured Americans adopt 
England as their home. The marriage of American 
ladies with the nobility of England exhibits this 
centripetal tendency. And it is more and more 
becoming the fashion for the wealthy Australian to 
settle in England, become a member of a leading 
London club, and enter Parliament. Let me here 

B 2 



4 NEW ZEALAND. 

observe that the affectionate and becoming expression 
" Home " is applied to Great Britain throughout the 
Australasian colonies. The highest standard of every 
department of knowledge is supposed to exist at 
" Home," and I am quite convinced that the colonies 
are both loyal to the Crown and eager to form their 
centres of culture upon British models. 

Seeing that the area of Great Britain, as it is now 
parcelled out, is insufficient to support our population, 
increasing as it does by more than 300,000 persons 
annually, after allowing for loss by death and by 
emigration, we must all feel glad that now we recognize 
emigration to be a positive necessity to avert a socialistic 
revolution, we have a " Greater Britain " beyond the 
seas, where 

" A man is a man if he is willing to toil, 
And the humblest may gather the fruits of the soil." 

It is calculated by A. McDougal of Manchester that 
at least five and a half millions of our fellow country- 
men, above the grade of paupers, live in miserable 
poverty, huddled together in stifling courts and alleys, 
living from hand to mouth, and never sure of three 
days' consecutive employment. Another alarming but 
true statement is made by an unexceptionable authority 
on statistics, viz., that during the last quarter of a 
century the foreign population of England has increased 
by 135 per cent. England is now almost the only 
civilized country that admits all nationalities, whether 
paupers or not, to settle within her territory, without 
any restriction whatever. This very large immigration 
of foreigners has not only lowered the wages (as in the 
east end of London) of English handicraftsmen to 
starvation point, but has left and is leaving a large 
residuum of helpless foreign-born paupers to be sup- 
ported by the poor rates in London, and in the large 
provincial towns. In some lines of industry, I am in- 
formed that the Germans are actually crowding out our 
own working-men. 

The time is come when statesmen and philanthropists 



MIGRATION, EMIGRATION, AND IMMIGRATION. 5 

should use all their energies to grapple with these sad 
facts, and should regard as a means of relief the vast 
field presented for immigration by our colonies. State- 
assisted or State-regulated emigration should be con- 
sidered as already a " burning question." Meantime 
the Self-help Emigration Societies of London, Liverpool, 
Manchester, and other cities, are doing a good work, 
though on a small scale, in the right direction. 

I feel strongly that now that the United States is 
adopting measures restrictive of immigration, which 
bear more hardly on our own population than on that 
of other European countries, the time for our colonists 
to show a generous spirit, and for the imperial Govern- 
ment to reciprocate it, has arrived. 

Nothing can strengthen the bonds of love between 
the mother country and her children more than the 
settlement in the colonies of steady industrious men 
and women, who will remain under the same sovereign 
and the same old flag, and who can never forget that 
both they and we are of one blood, one language, and, 
in a broad sense, of one religion. It is in the hope of 
placing the advantages offered by the picturesque, fertile, 
and healthy colony of New Zealand before the British 
public, and of dispelling some erroneous impressions 
conveyed by mere passing travellers most of whom 
commit their crude experiences to print on their return 
that I have ventured this little barque upon the ocean 
of literature. 

Apart from a roving spirit and love of adventure, 
men leave the old country of their own free will only 
for one cause " to better themselves," in pocket, health, 
social or political position, or to work out a new line 
for themselves in life which they have not attempted 
before. To a Briton who wishes to remain under his 
native standard, the Australasian colonies offer a 
healthier climate than that of India or of the West 
Indies. New Zealand, moreover, presents a magnificent 
choice of climates as I shall demonstrate in chapter ii. 
in none of which exists either the arctic cold of Canada, 
or the broiling intense solar heat of the Cape or of 



6 NEW ZEALAND. 

Australia. Statistics show that the land there is the 
most productive, when tilled, of all the agricultural 
colonies ; and that, while no spot in the whole of the 
three islands is more than seventy-five miles from the sea, 
none is more than ten miles from a lake, stream, or 
river of drinkable water. The emigrant need have no 
fear of native, coolie, or Chinese cheap labour in New 
Zealand. The influx of the yellow man has been 
checked by an impost of 10 per head per annum. 
The Maoris work for themselves, but seldom for others, 
and are not fond of manual labour as yet. 

On landing in a New Zealand port, the new arrival 
will scarcely notice anything foreign or ' un-English ' 
around him, except, indeed, the absence of seedy and 
ragged boys and girls, and out-at-elbows idlers, who in 
the old country beset the traveller to get money from 
him by begging or by trivial and unasked attentions. 
The cheerful, well-fed, well-clothed appearance of 
working men, women and children is also ' un-English.' 

It is well to point out, now that we have arrived at the 
stage of the desirability of New Zealand for the emi- 
grant, that by the latest private and official sources of 
information, the only classes of immigrants required in 
the colony are : (1) female domestic servants ; (2) 
farmers with capital ; (3) agricultural labourers ; (4) 
shepherds and herdmen. No assistance in paying any 
part of the passage-money is now given by the Govern- 
ment, which is carefully retrenching its expenses. All 
other trades, occupations, and professions are now so 
full in the colony that it is difficult for a new arrival to 
find work. 

Certain facts are forgotten sometimes by too eloquent 
emigration agents ; for instance, (1) that the birth-rate 
in New Zealand is very high, amounting in some years 
to 38'5 per cent., and that the colony will complete its 
first half-century in 1890. It follows, as a consequence, 
that there are hundreds of New Zealand boys and girls, 
all of very fair education, ready and eager to fill 
situations, to enter offices, learn trades, and to get into 
the large Civil Service of the Government, which also 



MIGRATION, EMIGRATION, AND IMMIGRATION. 7 

practically includes the great Education Department. 
Lawyers, teachers, clerks, governesses, lady helps, 
clergymen, artists, and even musicians are not well 
advised to go out just now to settle in New Zealand. I 
say " even musicians," because all the cities and towns 
of the colony are musical. Clergymen with high testi- 
monials from home can sometimes obtain an appoint- 
ment, generally of smaller value than that they left 
in England. Barristers, solicitors, and attorneys are 
qualified by study and examination within the colony. 
There is also a theological training college, providing 
clergymen for the Maoris and the country districts of 
New Zealand. 

No complete medical education has as yet been given 
in the colony, though the University of New Zealand 
has the power to confer the degrees of M.B. and M.D., 
after a course of study and several examinations, 
equal to those of Edinburgh University. It is said 
that in four or five years the first undergraduate will 
be duly qualified for his degree. There are now (1889) 
495 medical practitioners on the colonial register, and 
107 dentists, the white population being estimated at 
610,000. Openings do occur here and there for doctors, 
and sometimes with a minimum income guaranteed, but 
they are quickly snapped up. In the Church and in 
Medicine the colonists prefer men fresh from home; 
but in other lines the " new chum " has to yield to the 
man who has had already some colonial experience. 

Nor do colonists want any men who have been 
failures in the old country. They are good-hearted 
enough to give such a man " another chance," but woe 
to him if he neglects or misuses it or fails at it 
altogether! They are sharp and shrewd in judging 
character, and he does not get another such opening. 
Smartness and common sense are essential to success in 
New Zealand. Even an honest and faithful employe, if 
dull and slow, may have to give place to a " smarter " 
man. But the bright and bracing climate stimulates 
the faculties of the whole nature of the immigrant, so 
that he who has been slow, unintelligent, and depressed 



8 NEW ZEALAND. 

in England, becomes quick, lively, hopeful, and ener- 
getic in the " Britain of the South." 

Having seen several disastrous wrecks of men and 
women shunted, as it were, from England on to this 
colony, I do not blame New Zealanders for indignantly 
protesting against the practice that has grown up at 
home of exiling the family scapegrace or ne'er-do-weel to 
their country, simply because it is geographically the 
most distant point he can reach. The colony is not a 
safe reformatory for the habitual drunkard, gambler, or 
profligate. Such a man will find boon companions to 
share his vices so long as he has a shilling to spend. 
The end is the hospital, the refuge, the asylum, the 
prison, or the suicide's grave. It is not fair to the 
honest and hard-working citizens to send among them 
men who spread a blight around them wherever they 
wander. The hopefullest of mothers of these prodigal 
sons should remember that truest of Horatian maxims 

"Coelum, non animum mutant, qui trans mare currant." 

A young, healthy, single man, of good morals and 
principles, energetic and ready to "rough it," with a 
handicraft of some kind at which he is expert, is the 
type of emigrant that will succeed in New Zealand. If 
he leaves old England with hope in his bosom, faith 
in his heart, and love to his fellow-man beaming from 
his eyes, always ready to do a good turn, handy and 
hard-working, and skilled in his own particular trade, he 
will not fail of getting remunerative employment. 
With a very small capital he can buy land on one of 
the easy systems described in chapter vii. ; he will 
marry a practical, sensible colonial girl (splendid house- 
wives they make !) and having given his children a 
free education better than he ever had, will place them 
out in life much earlier than he could have done in 
England. The sons that take to farming will have the 
advantage of knowing how to farm in New Zealand 
not by any means the same thing as English farming ; 
and thus a second generation will grow up, industrious, 
prosperous, and contented. 



MIGRATION, EMIGRATION, AND IMMIGRATION. 9 

The poet Campbell had the right idea of this type of 
emigrant. 

" The pride to rear an independent shed, 
And give the lips we love unborrowed bread; 
To see a world from shadowy forest won, 
In youthful beauty wedded to the sun. 
To skirt our home with harvests widely sown, 
And call the blooming landscape all our own ; 
Our children's heritage, in prospect long; 
These are the hopes high-minded hopes and strong 
That beckon England's wanderers o'er the brine, 
To realms where foreign constellations shine." 

If a man desirous of farming land arrives in the 
colony with capital, let him put his money into the 
Government Savings Bank, where it will earn four 
per cent., and travel up the country, getting employ- 
ment wherever he can for a few months, until he has 
gained the necessary experience. Just now numerous 
" bargains " in the shape of well-improved farms are to 
be picked up, but as the colony gradually rights itself 
after the late depression these will be absorbed. The 
newcomer must be careful not to pay too high a price 
for an improved farm. The small capitalist, equally 
with the man who has only a few pounds, will have to 
work hard upon his land and await results. Crown 
land for sale is generally remote from towns, and 
requires clearing, fencing, " burning off," sowing, &c., 
before any living can be made out of it. The cry of 
the New Zealand farmer now is, " Oh, that we had 
cheap labour ! " And the agricultural labourers that 
may go out there should take this hint, so that no 
Oriental race may gradually creep in ; for New 
Zealand should be kept for the European races to 
people and possess. 

The best time of year for the intending settler to 
arrive in New Zealand is during the months of Sep- 
tember, October, and November for the North Island, 
and at any time during the summer (November to 
March) for the Middle (usually but erroneously termed 
the "South") Island. 

His outfit should include a large stock of clothes, his 



10 NEW ZEALAND. 

books, tools, and any labour-saving machines he may 
have, for there is a high protective tariff in New 
Zealand. If he contemplates making his abode in 
Auckland, Napier, or New Plymouth, he should bring 
lighter clothes, both outer and inner garments, than he 
would wear in England. For other parts the ordinary 
English clothes will suffice. For the long summer the 
helmet is inevitable. Umbrellas and waterproofs 
should not be forgotten, because of the high price of 
these articles in the colony. Eeally good (not half- 
worn) furniture should also be taken or sent by ship to 
New Zealand if economy is an object. 

We now come to the choice of routes for New 
Zealand. The old days of a three to six months' sea 
voyage by sailing ship are drawing to a close, for the 
two companies who are running large steamers, 
carrying mails, direct to the colony, carry steerage 
passengers for the very moderate rate of 16 to 21, 
giving three liberal meals per diem, plenty of cabin 
space, and landing them in from thirty-seven to forty- 
four days from port to port. I can bear witness from 
personal knowledge, having returned to England on 
the Tainui, that the Shaw, Savill, and Albion Company 
treat this and the other two classes of passengers most 
generously as to food and accommodation. 

1. This company start their steamers, the Araiva, 
Tainui, Ionic, and Coptic, each from 4400 to 5000 tons, 
on alternate fortnights with those of the New Zealand 
Shipping Company, the Aorangi, Ruapehu, Tongariro, 
and Rimutaka, all magnificent and fast vessels of 
4170 tons. The steamers leave the West India Docks 
on Thursday and call at Plymouth on the Saturday for 
mails and passengers. Going out, they all call at Tene- 
rifife (Santa Cruz), Cape Town, and Hobart (Tasmania). 
On the homeward voyage they visit Rio de Janeiro 
and Teneriffe. The first-class fare is 63, return 105 
and 115, the second-class 40, return 60. 

2. Another route is via the Mediterranean, Suez 
Canal, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean, by the magnificent 
steamers of the Orient and the Peninsular and Oriental 



MIGRATION, EMIGRATION, AND IMMIGRATION. 11 

companies ; the average length of the outward voyage 
being forty days to Sydney, thence by Union Company 
of New Zealand steamer, or by the San Francisco mail 
steamer, four and a half to five days to Auckland. 
Fares, first-class 63 and 70, second-class 42, 
steerage seventeen guineas to 22. Travellers who can 
choose the best season for passing through the Eed 
Sea, say, January and February, and who can take 
plenty of time, may enjoy this route by stopping at 
Naples to see Pompeii, &c., or at Port Said to see 
Alexandria, Cairo, and the Pyramids, and proceeding 
by the next following steamer (fortnightly) of the line 
they have selected. There are fewer long stretches of 
ocean upon this route than on the first one described. 

3. Lastly, we have the fast mail route via New York 
across the United States by the Union and Central 
Pacific railroads to San Francisco, thence by American 
built steamers to Honolulu, Tutuila (Samoa), and 
Auckland. By this mail I have often received letters 
on the thirty-fourth day after their despatch from 
Liverpool. But no one would for choice travel across 
at this speed. To those tourists who do not regard 
expense much, who dread sea-sickness, can sleep on the 
railroad journey, or have friends in the United States, 
this is the best route. The through fare, first-class, 
from London or Liverpool to Auckland, Wellington, 
Dunedin, or Christchurch is 66 to 72, but to this 
must be added cost of sleeping-car, drawing-room car, 
and meals on the train, and hotel and carriage expenses. 
Probably 110 would cover the whole trip. The 
most agreeable season of the year for this route is, 
going west, to start in July, August, or September, 
and, going homewards, to start in March, April, 
or May. 

It is interesting to see that Jules Verne's romance is 
now a realizable fact, for a traveller can go round the 
world in eighty days. 

As Messrs. Thomas Cook and Sons have now included 
New Zealand in their excursion scheme, travel to the 
colony and through it will be simplified and cheapened. 



12 NEW ZEALAND. 

A round-the-world ticket, to go by one route and 
return by another, can be purchased for 140. 

To the visitor I would say further, " obtain and use 
any good letters of introduction to New Zealand 
residents that you can get." To the emigrant and 
intending settler I would say the same, but add, " do 
not base any hopes of immediate employment upon 
them." 

The following definite official information respecting 
the wages now prevailing in the colony, the cost of the 
necessaries of life, of clothing, house-rent, &c., will be 
found useful by the emigrant. 

WAGES BY THE WEEK, WITH BOARD. 

Auckland. Wellington. Canterbury. Otago. 

2s. to 20s. 15s. to 20s. 12s. to 20s. 15s. to 20s. 



Domestic ser-) 
vants . ./ 
Laundresses . 12s. 15s. 12s. 14s. 10s. 15s. 10s. 15s. 



r-) ... , n 10 , n 1C . , n 

vants . ./ 8s " 10s ' 8s> 12s> 10s ' los * 10s> 



WAGES PER WEEK THROUGHOUT THE COLONY, WITHOUT BOABD. 

Bakers ..... 20s. to 45s. 

Butchers .... 25s. 50s. 

Shoemakers .... 30s. 50s. 

Tailors ..... 30s. 40s. 

WAGES PEE DAY THROUGHOUT THE COLONY, WITHOUT BOARD. 



Blacksmiths 

Bricklayers 

Brickmakers 

Carpenters 

Painters 

Masons . 

Shipwrights 

Miners. 

General labourers 



7s. to 12s. 
7s. 12s. 
6s. 8s. 
6s. 10s. 
6s. 9s. 
6s. to 10s. 
8s. 12s. 
6s. 12s. 
5s. ,,, 7s. 



Cost of Living in New Zealand. 

1. House-rent is perhaps the heaviest item in the 
expenditure of the working man. The rent of a three- 
roomed cottage (of wood) is about 6s. ; of larger houses, 



MIGRATION, EMIGRATION, AND IMMIGRATION. 13 



suitable for workmen, from 8s. to 14s. per week in 
towns ; in the country, 4s. to 10s. per week. Furnish- 
ing is from seventy-five to 100 per cent, more expensive 
than at home. 

2. Board and lodging may be had in any of the 
towns for a single adult for 15s., 17s. 6d., or 1 
per week. 

3. Clothing of the cheaper qualities, most worn by 
the working classes, is from fifteen to twenty-five per 
cent, dearer than at home. But the more expensive 
materials, broadcloth, silk, flannel, &c., are fully thirty 
to fifty per cent, higher. 

4. There are numerous benefit societies, the rules of 
which provide medical attendance and medicine in 
sickness free to members. Medical fees and the price 
of drugs are higher than in England. 

5. By means of the building societies a frugal and 
constantly employed workman or tradesman can, on 
easy terms, become possessor of a freehold house and 
allotment in three to seven years. 

COST OF PROVISIONS, KETAIL, IK NEW ZEALAND. 
(Liable to fluctuations.) 





Auckland. 


Wellington. 


Christchurch. 


Dunedin. 


Beef, per Ib 


2d. to 6d. 


2d. to 5d. 


3d. to Gd. 


4d. to 6d. 


Mutton .... 


lid. 4d. 


lid. 4d. 


lid. 4d. 


2fZ. Sid. 


Butter 


V 1/3 


6d. I/ 


9d. Wd. 


lOd. l/ 


Cheese , 


6d. Id. 


4d. 9d. 


3d. 6d. 


6d. Id. 


Tea 


1/10 2/10 


1/6 3/ 


1/8 3/ 


a/ 3/ 


Coffee .... 


1/1 1/10 


1/3 1/8 


1/10 2/ 


1/8 1/10 


Sugar .... 


3d. 4d. 


2d. 4d. 


l>id. 4d. 


3id. 4id. 


Bread, per 4-lb. loaf . . 


3+d. 6d. 


4*d. Id. 


4d. 5d.. 


6d. 


Milk, per quart . . . 


3id. 


4d. 


5d. 


Sd. 


Potatoes, per cwt. . . 


V ,, 6/ 


3/ 5/ 


3/ 5/ 


5d. 


Coal, per ton .... 


25/ 50/ 


30/ 50/ 


32/ 42/ 


30/ to 55/ 



Firewood varies, according to season of the year, and proximity to forests, from 
10*. to 2 per ton. 



14: NEW ZEALAND. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE CLIMATES OF NEW ZEALAND: GENEEAL AND LOCAL. 

Differences of Australian and New Zealand climate not sufficiently 
recognized by consulting physicians Advantages of the colonies 
for the British invalid General climate of New Zealand 
Topography Meteorology Effects of mountain ranges and 
forests Muggy weather and its antidote Four subordinate 
zones of climate : 1. North Cape to Napier ; 2. Napier to 
Hurunui; 3. Hurunui to South Island; 4. Alpine Plateau of 
North Islands-Particular features and suitability to various 
pulmonary diseases Auckland, Whangarei, Napier, Palmerston, 
Nelson, Picton, Christchurch, Dunedin, Invercargill Cautions 
to invalids General summary. 

THE previous chapter having been chiefly devoted to 
the emigrant, we now turn to the interests of the health- 
seekers, of whom hundreds are now familiarized more 
or less by personal experience with the bright skies and 
perpetual sunshine of the Australasian colonies. Travel 
by the routes we have described being now made both 
moderate in cost and luxurious in every detail ; the 
horrid mal-de-mer having been reduced to its minimum 
by the shortened passage between the ports of call ; 
and hotel accommodation, railway, steamer, and coach 
facilities having permeated even the wildest parts of 
such recent acquisitions as New Zealand and Tasmania, 
the invalid may now regard the former colony as an 
easily accessible health resort. 

Fashionable consultants in my own profession have 
been in the habit hitherto of sending their consump- 
tive or nerve-exhausted patients to New Zealand or 
Australia, chiefly for the sake of the voyage. But they 
have not given sufficient attention to the differences 
of climate between (1) Australia, Tasmania, and New 



THE CLIMATES OF NEW ZEALAND. 15 

Zealand, and (2) between the different districts of the 
last-mentioned colony. While Australia, as a whole, 
is a much drier country than New Zealand, less 
stormy, and therefore more suitable for some forms of 
consumption, experience shows that it is so violent 
and sudden a contrast to the English climate as to 
make the transition injurious to many consumptive 
and debilitated invalids. The experience during the 
first few days after landing of a hot wind in Sydney or 
in Adelaide, or of a " southerly burster " in Melbourne, 
makes a sick man regret the termination of his ocean 
voyage. But on the inland mountain plateaux, such as 
the Darling Downs of Queensland, health is often 
restored, even in a pronounced case of the second stage 
of consumption, and life in that dry bracing air, though 
under a hot sun, becomes enjoyable. It is my duty to 
lay before my readers, both lay and medical, the obser- 
vations and conclusions derived from nine years' sojourn 
as to the Four General Climatic Zones into which 
New Zealand may be divided for the purposes of the 
valetudinarian and his advisers. 

The British who travel for health become in time 
tired of foreign countries, and look round the world for 
a region where pure and bracing or mild air, interesting 
natives, beautiful scenery, good water for drinking, 
mineral baths, their accustomed food, convenient ex- 
cursions, and pleasant society may be enjoyed among 
people of their own language. All these advantages, 
together with an unsurpassed climate, are to be found 
in New Zealand. When tired of the "mistral" or 
"bise," of the noise and dust of the Kiviera, of the 
demoralizing gaming-tables, and of the parasites who 
hang on to the visitors at all foreign resorts, the invalid 
of the future will fly on the wings of steam to the 
realm of the Southern Cross, and 

" By the long wash of Australasian seas," 

will find in New Zealand, at Auckland, the Bay of 
Islands, Napier, Eotorua, or Nelson, a new world of 
calm delight, in a balmy yet invigorating atmosphere. 



16 NEW ZEALAND. 



The General Climate of New Zealand. 

The three islands forming, with three groups of islets 
(Auckland Islands, Chatham Islands, Kermadee Islands), 
the colony of New Zealand extend from north to south 
through 13 of S. Lat., and from east to west through 
nearly 13 of E. Long. The colony possesses a coast- 
line of over 3000 miles, and mountain chains run 
through all the three islands, North, Middle, and South 
or Stewart's Island. In the North Island the chief 
mountains are in the centre and near the east coast ; 
in the Middle Island they are near the west coast ; so 
that the plains of the North and of the Middle Islands 
are on opposite sides. On glancing at the map, the 
reader will notice the singular resemblance in figure of 
the whole colony to Italy reversed, and amputated, as 
it were, from the continent of Europe. The promontories 
of Gargano and of Ancona in the older country seem 
whimsically reproduced in those of Akaroa and of Port 
Chalmers in the new. The active volcano Vesuvius 
has its counterpart in Mount Tongariro, and the more 
recent volcano, Mount Tarawera. The climate of the 
Auckland provincial district is not unlike that of South 
Italy and of Sicily. I need not enlarge on other 
correspondences. The area of the whole colony is 
104,000 square miles, about one-sixth less than the 
entire area of Great Britain and Ireland. As no point 
in the colony is more than 75 miles from the coast, 
and as two straits Cook's Strait, thirteen miles across, 
and Foveaux Straits, fifteen miles wide, separate the 
three islands, the climate of the colony, as a whole, is 
insular, and tolerably equable. It is certainly warmer 
than that of Great Britain, for it lies within the 
southern temperate zone. The average temperature 
for the whole year is, in the North Island, 57, in the 
Middle Island, 52. For the whole colony the mean 
temperature for the summer is 63, for the winter 48, 
for the spring 55, and for the autumn 57. In the 
northern part of the North Island there is no true 



THE CLIMATES OF NEW ZEALAND. 17 

spring nor autumn, but only a hot season November to 
April, inclusive ; and a cold and wet season, May 
to October, inclusive. During three-quarters of the 
year a healthy man may sleep out of doors with 
impunity to health, if furnished with simply a blanket 
and a mackintosh, anywhere in the North Island. 

The most important fact for invalids is the smallness 
of the mean daily range of temperature, which is from 
15 to 20 only, showing great equability of climate. 
Next to this, the average annual rainfall must be 
studied, for it varies much in different districts, as the 
following table will show : 

MEAN ANNUAL RAINFALL, FOR EIGHTEEN YEARS, ENDING 1884. 
(In inches, omitting decimals.) 



North Island. 

Auckland ... 45 

Taranaki ... 58 

Napier .... 37 

Wellington . 50 



South Island. 

Christchurch . . 25 

Dunedin ... 32 

Southland ... 43 

Hokitika . 112 



The principal towns of New Zealand are all abundantly 
supplied with good drinking water, whereas the 
Australian capitals, lying along the edge of a sun-baked 
continent, often suffer from drought, and have to 
obtain their potable water from a distance at a large 
expense. The New Zealand Government has an efficient 
Meteorological Department, the weather reports being 
telegraphed every morning at nine o'clock to the chief 
at Wellington from twenty -five stations at various 
elevations, and then posted up at all the principal ports 
and inland towns, together with Captain Edwin's fore- 
casts of the weather, about two-thirds of which have 
been verified in Auckland, during the time I resided 
there. 

Periods of lasting drought in New Zealand are un- 
known. Only in two instances during the last twenty 
years do the meteorological records at any one station 
show that a whole month passed without rain a fact 
very encouraging to the farmer who is thus assured of 
water for his crops. The region north of Auckland 

c 



18 NEW ZEALAND. 

comes within the limits of the winter sub-tropical rain- 
fall, but in the Middle and South Islands the rain is 
distributed more equally over all the months of the 
year. On the west coast rain is more prevalent in 
spring and on the east coast in summer. The table on 
p. 17 shows remarkable differences between the rain- 
falls at different places on or about the same parallel of 
latitude ; for instance, Napier on the east has only half 
the rain of New Plymouth (Taranaki) on the west, 
while Hokitika on the west of the Middle Island has 
four and a half times the amount that falls at Christ- 
church on the east. 

The proximity of Mount Egmont (8260 feet) to New 
Plymouth, and of the Southern Alps to Hokitika account 
for this fact, and so, in like manner, for other examples. 
It should be noted that the mountains of the North 
Island are still mostly covered with forest " bush " it 
is called by colonists but those of the Middle Island 
are open, well grassed with " tussock," and can be used 
for pasture. But so quickly are the forests of the 
Auckland district being cut down for the valuable 
Kauri pine (Dammara Aiistralis) that a distinct decrease 
in the average annual rainfall there has been noticed 
already, and is still going on. As a slight means of 
comparison as to rainfall, I may mention that during 
1882 rain fell on 191 days in Auckland, on 166 in 
Wellington, and on 187 in Dunedin. 

The winds most prevalent round the coasts of the 
colony are from the west, south-west, and south. When 
a storm centre passes to the south of New Zealand, 
westerly winds prevail, and they are always cold. But 
when the centre of barometric depression goes round 
the North Cape (see map No. 1) the result is that 
north-east winds strike the east coast, bringing with 
them clouds, rain, and warm mist. This forms the 
weather called " muggy " by the Aucklanders and 
others, which is disagreeably enervating as long as it 
lasts. After three or four days it is followed by its 
exact opposite, a cold bracing south-west wind with dry 
weather and a clear blue sky. In winter this south- 



THE CLIMATES OF NEW ZEALAND. 19 

west wind in the Middle and South Islands is accom- 
panied with heavy storms of rain and snow. 

It is really astonishing how cheerfully one fresh 
from the gloom of wet days in London, Liverpool, 
Manchester, Glasgow, or other huge smoky cities, can 
wait indoors in New Zealand for the cessation of a 
rain-storm. There is almost always a glimpse of blue 
sky somewhere and what a blue! Read Froude's 
eloquent description in " Oceana." And there is an 
exhilaration in the air, only temporarily veiled by the 
transient " muggy " weather. 

As most health-seekers leave England for the 
prevention, alleviation, or cure of some pulmonary 
disease, my classification of the various belts of climate 
in this colony now for the first time attempted is 
based upon their adaptiveness, suitability, or unsuit- 
ability for invalids coming under this head, as well as 
for those whose nerve-centres require a change of 
climate and scenery. 

The foregoing facts concerning the general climate of 
New Zealand will already afford some useful hints to 
the reader as to choice of locale. 

While it would not be quite accurate to establish 
isothermal lines dividing these four Zones of Climate, 
yet the fact is that a similar average temperature during 
any particular month of the year is found to exist at 
any part of the zone, except indeed when a cold breeze 
or rain is lowering the heat of the air in summer at one 
spot and not at another. "Windy Wellington," for 
example, is a nick-name familiar to all New Zealanders, 
based on its meteorology, and therefore that city feels 
heat less than Wanganui, Woodville, or Napier in 
summer. 

These divisions of climate are as follows : 

1st. A zone of latitude extending from the North 
Cape, S. lat. 34 20', southwards to Napier, and across 
the North Island to Hawera, S. lat. 39 30' Zone No. 1. 

2nd. A zone stretching from this line southwards to 
the Hurunui River and Hokitika, both in the Middle 
Island Zone No. 2. 

c 2 



20 NEW ZEALAND. 

3rd. A zone reaching from the Hurunui Eiver to the 
southern coast line of the Middle Island, and including 
the South or Stewart's Island Zone No. 3. 

4th. An Alpine plateau, comprising a large portion 
of the middle of the North Island, extending upwards 
from an elevation of 1000 feet above sea level this 
we may designate Zone No. 4. This zone is cut out of 
No. 1, being a distinctly different climate as regards its 
effects upon visitors, and must be regarded as an 
atmospheric rather than a terrestrial zone, a highland 
zone as compared with the lowlands. This zone 
includes the whole " Taupo Volcanic Zone " of map 
No. 3. 

ZONE I. 

This climate is the warmest and mildest in the whole 
colony. The North Cape being nearly on the same 
parallel of south latitude as Sydney, Adelaide, Cape 
Town, and Buenos Ayres, we should expect this extreme 
north district to be very warm. And it is found by 
experiment that bananas, guavas, oranges, lemons, 
citrons, and other tropical and sub-tropical fruits can be 
grown there. But the constant sea breezes and saline 
moisture arising from the narrowness of the " toes of 
the boot " (see map No. 1), as we may call the north end 
of the North Island, and from the numerous estuaries 
running up far into the land, together with the 
exhalations from the forests which clothe most of the 
hills and valleys, all these features soften the dryness 
of the heated atmosphere, and produce, without malaria 
(such as exists in Florida and Jamaica), a wholesome 
warm climate, equable in its range of temperature, 
where men can work hard at manual labour all summer 
without a siesta at mid-day. By common consent this 
climate is considered the most delicious in New 
Zealand. 

The mean average of the yearly temperature is 59 
in the shade for the northern part of the zone. At 
Mongonui (S. lat.35l'), the northernmost meteorological 



THE CLIMATES OF NEW ZEALAND. 21 

station in New Zealand, the maximum shade temperature 
in summer was 89, and the minimum in winter 31, 
for a period of ten years ; while the mean summer 
temperature was only 66*56, showing hoV much the 
solar rays were tempered by the proximity of the sea. 

Fertile valleys, rich in virgin soil, intersect the 
country from N.E. to S. W., and N. to S., where fruits of 
every kind, both sub-tropical and those of cold climates, 
tobacco, sorghum, sugar-beet, coffee, tea, and the white 
mulberry (for the silk-culture) may be profitably 
cultivated. The average rainfall over the district 
extending from the North Cape, Cape Eeinga (the 
Maori Hades), and Cape Maria van Diemen to Whangarei 
on the east coast and Port Albert on the west, is 51 '7 
inches, of which the greater part falls during the 
months of May, June, July, August, and September. 
There is no frost in winter near the coast, and but 
slight and transient phases of it in valleys shaded from 
both sun and sea breeze in the interior. The bold and 
picturesque volcanic scenery of the harbours of 
Whangaroa and Parua Bay ; the cascades that are found 
in the valleys ; the wild ferns, many of them esteemed 
as rare by European connoisseurs, and all of them 
wonderfully well grown ; and the luxuriance of all 
vegetation, make this part of Zone I. most attractive to 
the visitor. Near Whangarei, 75 miles north of Auckland 
by sea, where the alluvial drift rests upon limestone 
rock, there are both extensive orangeries, citron, lime, 
and lemon groves, and the most prolific vineries in New 
Zealand. The " dessert grapes " usually carry off the 
prizes at the Auckland annual show. The worthy 
station-master here (Mr. Dobie) has cultivated oranges 
for fifteen years past so successfully that no visitor 
passes through without a sight of them, and his 
success has stimulated others to start the same culture 
elsewhere. 

Mr. Geo. E. Alderton, in his useful treatise " Orange 
Culture in New Zealand," has shown that North 
Auckland has several places where the soil, with proper 
culture, the climate, and the rainfall are excellently 



22 NEW ZEALAND. 

adapted for raising this fruit to a profit. At an outlay 
of 750, in three years, 1000 orange trees planted on 
ten acres of suitable land will from the fourth year 
realise a profit, and by the end of the sixth year not 
only repay the 750, but leave a large balance for the 
proprietor. 

The School of Forestry and Experimental Fruit- 
growing Farm, established by the Government, is 
situated near this pleasant and healthful town. For 
the visitor there are lovely walks, drives, and excursions 
to the falls, to the limestone caves of Waipu and of 
Whangarei, and to the mineral springs of Kamo. In 
winter Whangarei is a safer place for consumptives 
than even Auckland, becaiise of its sheltered position, 
and of its limestone subsoil. The chalybeate spring at 
Kamo, seven miles by rail from Whangarei, is a valuable 
tonic. Though not far from the sea, this town has some 
of the advantages of an inland place. For instance, I 
have known asthmatic invalids who could spend the 
winter in Whangarei in comfort, while they suffered in 
Auckland. 

There is less chance of contracting rheumatism in this 
district the same may be said of Napier also than 
in other towns near the sea in this Zone. 

Throughout the whole area of this Zone, the climate 
is beneficial to cases of scrofula, of strumous glands, of 
enlarged joints and rickety bones in children, and of 
skin diseases of a strumous origin. The abundance and 
excellent quality of both meat, milk, butter, and eggs, 
vastly improve the pale unhealthy children born and 
reared in the large cities of England, where they can 
neither have this nourishing diet, nor breathe the pure 
oxygen of the New Zealand air. 

The tourist of botanical tastes may be interested to 
learn that the flora of the Auckland provincial district 
comprises 675 species of flowering plants, and 123 of 
ferns and fern allies, including nearly every native 
plant, shrub, or tree of known economic value. The 
very valuable Kauri ipine^Dammara Austrcdis, Coniferse) 
grows nowhere out of this district. The naturalist will 



THE CLIMATES OF NEW ZEALAND. 23 

find great interest in searching for the native birds and 
insects, yearly becoming scarcer, because driven out 
before the more vigorous or rapacious fauna of Europe. 
The Little Barrier island, N.E. of the Kawau, lying 
off the coast near Rodney Point, is one of the few 
remaining haunts of the rarer avifauna of New Zealand. 
The sportsman can enjoy shooting pheasants, wild duck, 
and partridges, or the tui, korimako, kaka, kakapo, and 
a variety of small birds of the parrot tribe, which relieve 
the silence of the dense woods. Taking the whole 
colony, there is no country in the world more rich in 
ferns than New Zealand, and none as wealthy in native 
woods, which take a fine polish for ornamental pur- 
poses. The kiwi, a wingless bird the size of a Cochin- 
China hen, is found in this district, the small repre- 
sentative of the extinct Moa (Dinornis elephantipes), a 
gigantic ostrich-like bird, whose bones are still found in 
caves and drift in this province, but rarely, owing to 
the careful searching of scientists during the last twenty 
years. It was from one imperfect bone of this bird 
that Professor Owen made his famous prognostication 
of the form, description, and habits of the Dinornis, 
which was so exactly verified. 

Local Climate of Auckland. 

While the general features of the climate of the city 
of Auckland and its suburbs correspond with those of 
the northern zone above described, there are some local 
peculiarities which must now be pointed out. In 
chapter iv. the situation of the city upon clay hills 
and scoriae slopes is portrayed in detail. The clay 
subsoil retains the moisture when the ground does not 
slope sharply, so that some inhabitants contract 
rheumatism, bronchitis, or sore throats, and towards 
the end of the summer typhoid fever. Ill-health 
arising from this cause is soon removed by sending the 
family to reside on the slopes of Mount Eden, Mount 
Hobson, Mount Albert, or Mount Victoria on the 
Devonport side (see illustration, frontispiece). To live, 



24 NEW ZEALAND. 

however, on the slopes facing the north-east, close to the 
cemetery of Devonport, is unhealthy, though it would 
be safe to say, speaking in general terms, that despite a 
rather limited water supply Devonport offers a healthier 
site for a residence all the year round than Auckland 
city. The winter in the city of Auckland is extremely 
mild. A few miles out in the country there may be 
four to five degrees of frost, but none whatever in the city 
limits. The constant humidity tempers the heat of 
summer delightfully, but has an enervating effect 
upon highly nervous persons, who feel a restlessness 
possessing them. The peculiar " muggy weather " 
coming from the north-east, generally with warm 
showers of steamy rain, causes in such temperaments 
an irritability, combined with languor and debility, 
which is easier imagined than described. Fortu- 
nately this phase of weather is not of long duration 
(p. 18). This is about the only drawback to the 
climate of the city. 

To lounge on an elegant and spacious verandah on 
a holiday afternoon, and gaze upon an Italian bit of 
scenery with a silent Vesuvius in the background; 
to listen to the familiar song of the skylark, the 
twitter of the swallow, the chirp of the sparrow, the 
humming of the bee, while at your feet in the garden 
bloom roses, heliotropes, fuchsias, geraniums, bougain- 
villeas, and countless other flowers this is enjoyment I 
And these charms exist within the limits of the city. 

The summer temperature ranges from 66 to 90. But 
80 is considered " very warm." In January, 1886, we 
had exceptionally hot weather, the thermometer in shade 
registering 72 as the lowest, and 80 as the highest 
temperature. But, with properly ventilated head- 
covering, and avoidance of needless exposure to the 
sun, no inconvenience need be suffered. Labourers here 
seem to work as hard as in England and sunstroke is very 
rare. Insomnia is experienced by some in Auckland 
during the summer, and for such, sleeping a few nights 
out in some country place, such as Waikomiti, Hen- 
derson, or Bombay, is the only cure. While there are 



TEE CLIMATES OF NEW ZEALAND. 25 

many spots near Auckland suited for a country hotel 
and sanatorium, no one has been found bold enough as 
yet to speculate in the matter. Howick offers an 
excellent situation for such a building, combining both 
country and marine views, a drying soil, and accessibility 
by road or water. 

While Auckland is a very appropriate place for 
invalids suffering from bronchitis of a recurrent nature, 
and from throat diseases, it is a singular fact that tenor 
and soprano voices soon lose their pitch and intonation 
if much used. Bass and alto voices stand very well. 
For genuine tubercular phthisis Auckland is seldom 
suitable, yet I know at least three definite cases of 
apparent " cure " by the change from England. In 
chapter xii. I shall further describe these cases. In 
each the real improvement had begun at sea, and the 
patients had carefully timed their voyage as to arrive 
in Auckland during the southern hemisphere's summer. 
A consumptive invalid should arrive not earlier in 
the year than October 15th or 20th, nor later in the year 
than March 31st. Some doubtful cases of pneumonic 
phthisis I have seen cured entirely. The invalid may 
reckon upon obtaining in Auckland and its suburbs 
any quality of accommodation he may choose to have ; 
an abundance of good food, facilities for riding, driving, 
&c. ; and plenty of kindly friends, who will do as much 
as they can for his comfort. There are a large number 
and variety of good boarding-houses in Auckland. 

Climate of TaranaJci. 

New Plymouth, 135 miles south of Onehunga, the 
port on the Manukau Harbour by which Auckland 
controls the traffic of the west coast, has a more 
bracing and healthier climate, but one which tries the 
poitrinaire too severely. South-west winds and storms 
prevail there. The sky is almost always clear, and the 
rain showers but brief. The snow-covered cone of 
Mount Egmont is the charm of the scenery. The 
mean annual temperature (fourteen years' observa- 



26 NEW ZEALAND. 

tion) is 57'5 ; the difference between the coldest and 
warmest months being 5'66. The mean annual 
rainfall is 58 inches. Abundance of pure water is one 
of the comforts of the Taranaki district, derived from 
the streams that flow from Egmont into the sea. The 
dairy produce of the farms here is also a great element 
in the diet of invalids, being of such a high quality. 
The population of the district was, in 1886, 18,000, 
chiefly devoted to pastoral pursuits. New Plymouth, 
Hawera, and the other chief towns in Taranaki are now 
connected with Wellington by railway : by sea (twelve 
hours to Onehunga) frequent steamers connect it with 
Auckland. The ascent "of Mount Egmont takes two 
days, and is not attended with danger or any special 
difficulty, ladies often mounting to the top. 

Local Climate of Napier. 

Crossing now to the east coast (see map) we come 
to Napier, the capital of Hawke's Bay Province. It is 
a lively and rising seaport, with a population of 9000, 
built upon limestone hills and upon a long neck of land 
called tlie Spit. The subsoil of the hilly part being drier 
than that of the other towns in this Zone, the well water 
is somewhat hard ; but these peculiarities are rather 
beneficial than otherwise to consumptive invalids, for a 
winter residence. Much less rain falls here than at 
Auckland or Taranaki, the average for the whole year 
being 3 7 '2 6 inches. The mean annual temperature is 
57 0> 56, the difference between the coldest and warmest 
months being 19 0> 26. Most English trees, birds, and 
fishes seem to acclimatize well in Hawke's Bay district. 
The grass is more succulent and the cereals yield more 
bushels to the acre than in other parts of the colony. 
Many asthmatic invalids do better at Napier than at 
Auckland. All the conveniences of advanced civiliza- 
tion are to be found in this thriving town. It was 
rather curious to find, as I once found, the very newest 
books from home in a bookseller's shop in Napier, 
when these books had not yet reached Auckland. 



THE CLIMATES OF NEW ZEALAND. 27 

The port of Napier is being improved by a large 
breakwater designed by Sir John Coode, whereby the 
heavy swell from the sea will be prevented from 
entering the harbour. Gas and water works, public, 
primary, and secondary schools, a hospital, a club, 
hotels, banks, and the usual Government offices and 
numerous warehouses, give Napier the completeness of 
a small capital. Its importance is enhanced by the 
agricultural and pastoral shows held there every year. 
The best judges of sheep and horses I know in New 
Zealand live in Napier. The people are a hearty, 
friendly, hospitable set. 

Several interesting excursions can be made from 
Napier. For instance, along the railway line connect- 
ing it with Wellington, to Hastings, to Havelock, to 
Te Aute, where there is a theological training college 
for natives, and to Woodville, in the Seventy Mile 
Bush Or, in the opposite direction, to Lake Taupo ; to 
Gisborne, where the wealthy Maori may be seen to 
perfection ; or to the well-arranged mountain hotel at 
Kuripapanga, fifty miles inland, north-west, where the 
sub-Alpine climate of Zone No. 4 can be fully enjoyed 
without the booming of geysers, steamy mist from 
hot springs, or the odour of sulphuretted hydrogen. 

ZONE II. 

This climatic belt includes part of the North Island, 
Cook's Straits, and part of the Middle Island as far 
south as the Hurunui Kiver on the east, and Hokitika 
on the west. The general climate of this Zone resembles 
that of the south of England, but with keener winds, 
and a far more bracing atmosphere. Within its North 
Island division we find some lovely inland valleys, such 
as the famous Manawatu Gorge, and the valley of the 
Upper Wanganui Eiver. The beautiful and varied 
" King Country " comes within this Zone, but is not as 
yet conveniently accessible to the tourist. 

Palmerston North, at the western end of the Mana- 
watu Gorge, is as healthy, bracing, and yet equable a 



28 NEW ZEALAND. 

place as I know. In the midst of summer the nights 
there are cool. This town has a strictly inland climate. 
It is furnished with a good water supply, very fair 
hotels, wide streets, good roads in all directions, and a 
lake for boating quite an unusual luxury for a New 
Zealand inland town. The view of the " monarch of the 
north," snow-clad Euapehu (8878 feet), from Palmerston 
in the early morning is a sight not soon to be forgotten. 
Wanganui, on the fine river of that name, is a healthy 
town having a mean annual temperature of 55, but is 
not very interesting to the traveller. 

At Woodville, only lately redeemed from the forest, 
the invalid can have the shelter afforded by the 
primaeval vegetation of the island. The winter there 
is mild, and the summer not too hot. But ennui will 
sooner or later drive him to a larger town, and he will 
probably make for Wellington, the capital of New 
Zealand. 

The Local Climate of Wellington. 

When the Home Government, in its wisdom, in 1865, 
moved the capital of the colony from Auckland, the 
Naples of New Zealand, to a settlement reputed to be 
the most breezy and earthquaky place in the colony, 
it is evident that climate did not enter into its consider- 
ation. What the Yankee said of England is applicable 
to Wellington : " I guess you have plenty of weather 
here, but no climate that I can see." Its central 
position in the colony, its good harbour, and its easy 
defensibility, constituted the reasons, as Sir Frederick 
Weld informed me, when I visited him in Hobart in 
1879, for the choice. The annual rainfall at Welling- 
ton is nearly fifty-one inches, and the mean annual 
temperature 55i. The city is much more bracing than 
Auckland, Wanganui, or Napier, and about as bracing 
as New Plymouth ; but I have seldom met with any 
one who preferred to live in Wellington from unbiassed 
choice. Civil servants, insurance and bank clerks, 
steamship companies' officials, and retired ex-officials 



THE CLIMATES OF NEW ZEALAND. 29 

constitute the bulk of the resident population, which in 
1886 was 25,945. The harbour is a grand expanse of 
deep water surrounded by hills intersected with ravines, 
and singularly resembling the Sea of Galilee in size, 
shape, and liability to sudden storms. The wharves are 
well constructed, and accommodate the largest number 
of ocean steamers simultaneously of any port in New 
Zealand. But even the direct mail steamers are storm- 
bound sometimes in the harbour. In the city, much of 
which has been reclaimed from the sea, the museum, 
the post-office, Government House, and other buildings, 
including what is supposed to be the largest wooden 
building in the world, are worthy of the colony. Cabs 
and tram-cars run at cheaper fares than in the other 
large towns. The North Island railways will in time all 
centre in Wellington. The great geological convulsion 
that formed Cook's Straits, dividing New Zealand into 
two islands, permanently altered the climates of both the 
adjacent extremities of the North and Middle Islands, 
by the in-draught of the west and south-west winds 
through the straits, and their collision with the east 
and north-east winds at the eastern outlet. The influx 
of the sea also has its effect. It will thus be understood 
that while Wellington has no terrors for vigorous 
healthy men, it is scarcely a desirable place for pul- 
monary invalids. 

Local Climates of Nelson and Picton. 

Nelson, at the head of Tasman Bay, on the north 
coast of the Middle Island, distant 106 miles from 
Wellington, is called " the garden of New Zealand " for 
all the fruits of the temperate and sub-tropical regions 
grow there in luxuriance. Large quantities of preserved 
fruit and jam of excellent quality are made there. 
Surrounded by mountains on all sides, the scenery of 
Nelson is very grand. To invalids suffering from slow 
chronic consumption, chronic bronchitis, rheumatism, 
and from senile decay, Nelson offers a delicious and 
restful climate. If the summer is found inconveniently 



30 NEW ZEALAND. 

warm, a visitor may resort to Top House on the moun- 
tains, 3000 feet above the sea. Nelson possesses the very 
best educational advantages, a comfortable club, cultured 
society, and an excellent local scientific association. 
The mean annual temperature of Nelson is 54- 86 ; the 
difference between the coldest and warmest months 
being 17. The average rainfall for the year is 61 
inches. Hops are extensively cultivated at Nelson, and 
both coal-mines and gold-mines are worked in the 
district. During 1887 the value of the gold exported 
from Nelson was 13,711. Its population in 1886 was 
7315. While the climate of Nelson is tranquillizing to 
nervous invalids, it has been found by experience too 
sedative to women who are at all subject to menor- 
rhagia, and who are burdened with the cares of a 
rapidly increasing family. Children born in Nelson 
during the summer are never robust. The winter, 
however, is more bracing than that of Auckland or 
Napier. 

Picton is a small town of about 800 inhabitants, at 
the head of a beautiful arm of the sea, called Queen 
Charlotte Sound. The short distance, forty miles (fifteen 
miles across Cook's Strait and twenty-five miles of smooth 
water up the Sound), between Wellington and Picton 
enables the Wellingtonians to use Picton as a summer 
resort. For boating, yachting, and fishing, Queen 
Charlotte Sound is unsurpassed in New Zealand. The 
flavour of the Picton herring is, in my opinion, equal to 
that of the Yarmouth 'bloater.' When I visited the 
place in 1886, lodgings were cheap ; the simplicity of 
the Pictonians, who flocked down in crowds to see the 
Moraroa, the largest Union steamer that had ever 
ventured up to their little wharf; and the exquisite 
situation of the sleepy-looking town, all indicated that 
Picton was not appreciated as it might be by the New 
Zealanders in general, or by that time it would have 
become a Llandudno or Scarborough on a small scale. 
But its time will come. From Nelson to Picton we 
steam through the " French Pass," a romantic channel, 
formed between the mainland and D'Urville Island, at 



TEE CLIMATES OF NEW ZEALAND. 31 

one place only 117 yards broad, the tide running with 
tremendous force through it, between steep cliffs 500 
feet high. Picton is the port of Blenheim, the capital 
of the provincial district of Marlborough, and is con- 
nected with it by railway. The mean annual tempera- 
ture of this district (five years' observation) is 53'4, 
the highest mean being 64 0< 3, and the lowest 42 0- 8. 
The average rainfall is nearly the same as that of 
Nelson. The country is mountainous, and covered with 
thick forests, chiefly of various kinds of pine and birch, 
of which a large quantity is' annually exported. In 
Blenheim, I noticed a prosperity and complete absence 
of poverty, and a general contentment with each one's 
lot not too common in New Zealand at that time of 
depression, the summer of 1886. The summer is dis- 
tinctly hotter in Blenheim than in Picton. It is not 
easy to find temporary accommodation there, except at 
the hotels, for every householder owns and occupies his 
own house. There are not the same social advantages 
as at Nelson, but as Picton is drier and colder than the 
latter city, it suits some cases of asthma better, and of 
hypenesthetic nerve-irritability. Delicate strumous 
children thrive well here, being able to take plenty of 
open air exercise in boating, fishing, climbing the hills, 
riding ponies, and walking. When Picton and Blen- 
heim are connected by rail with the Canterbury system, 
and with Nelson, I venture to predict that it will 
become the favourite sea-side resort of the Middle 
Island. Neither Sumner (Christchurch) nor Ocean 
Beach (Dunedin) have such attractions. 

ZONE III. 

Extending from the Hurunui Eiver and Hokitika, 
S. lat. 42 50' to the south of the South or Stewart's 
Island, S. lat. 47 20'. The general features of this 
climate have been sketched out on pp. 16/17, and 19, 
but the peculiar local climates of Christchurch, Dunedin, 
Queenstown on Lake Wakatipu and Invercargill require 
individual description. 



32 NEW ZEALAND. 



Local Climate of Christchurch. 

" The Cathedral City," as it is called, is the most 
handsomely laid out of the four chief cities of New 
Zealand. Its Cathedral (Anglican) is at present the 
only one in the colony. In churches, schools, colleges, 
museum, and handsome private residences, it is the 
most English-looking city in New Zealand. Its popu- 
lation (32,000) includes the largest number of wealthy 
citizens and of cultured people of any of the four cities. 
But its climate is not conducive to the health of sickly 
people or of young children, from its extreme varia- 
tions in the same week, or even in the same day. It 
is the only New Zealand city where a hot wind blows 
occasionally in the summer. This wind is from the 
west, and, though cool at its origin, becomes heated up 
by the hot, dry, fertile, wheat-growing Canterbury 
Plains about 100 miles before it reaches the city. It 
is at this season, (December to February) that cases of 
sunstroke occur. 

The pallor, languor, and frequent illnesses among 
children in Christchurch in summer impress the 
stranger unfavourably. In winter, again, the prevalent 
winds, west and south-west, are very cold, blowing as 
they do across the Southern Alps, and thence over the 
Canterbury Plains at that season bearing frost on their 
surface. The greatest heat of summer (derived from the 
mean average of twelve years' observation) is 88, and 
the greatest cold of winter is 25. Yet the mean annual 
temperature is only 52 "88. At the change of season, 
corresponding to our spring and autumn, Christchurch 
weather is delightful. At all times a run down to the 
port, namely, Lyttelton, from which a range of hills, 
pierced by a tunnel 2838 yards long, is a cooling 
change. So also is a stay at Sumner, the sea bathing- 
place of Christchurch. The healthy person who 
dislikes long, cold, and damp winter will live more 
comfortably in Christchurch than in Dunedin ; and a 
few cases of pure asthma do better in Christchurch 



TEE CLIMATES OF NEW ZEALAND. 33 

than elsewhere. But invalids with weak chests, or 
those whose liver and kidneys are affected, should not 
go there to reside. When debilitated by Christchurch 
summer weather, a visitor should go west to Bealey, on 
the Southern Alps, 2104 feet above sea level, a station 
on the coach road from the east to the west coasts. 
Here, amid glaciers and snow peaks as grand as that 
of Switzerland, he can become braced up thoroughly. 
Good fishing and shooting may be had. Bealey is the 
coldest of all the Government weather-stations. The 
minimum temperature for the year is 12, the maximum 
is 78, and the annual mean average is 46 '7. The 
average rainfall here is 105 inches. 

Crossing the well-made road, past terrific precipices, 
crossing roaring torrents, and skirting fields of snow 
the grandest drive in New Zealand from Bealey to 
Hokitika, we find ourselves in the wettest town in 
New Zealand, 112 inches being the average annual 
rainfall. The district called West-land is sparsely 
populated by an orderly people, although mining for 
gold and for coal are the chief industries. Forests are 
plentiful. The prevailing wind is westerly. The 
mean annual temperature is 52 34 ; the difference 
between the coldest and warmest months being 14 76. 
Westland cannot be recommended for invalids. Mount 
Cook, or Aarangi, the monarch of New Zealand, 12,349 
feet high, first ascended by the Rev. W. S. Green in 
1883, is in this district. The Midland Railway 
Company of New Zealand is now engaged in connecting 
Springfield and Hokitika by rail. 

Akaroa is a pleasant little town on a beautiful harbour 
situated on Bank's Peninsula, forty-four miles south-east 
from Lyttelton, famous for its fruits. It has a milder 
climate than Christchurch, and romantic scenery. 

Neither Tiinaru (pop. estimated at 5000), 100 miles 
south of Christchurch, nor Oamaru, seventy-eight miles 
north of Dunedin, both important seaports, need be 
described in a chapter devoted to climatic considera- 
tions. Healthy persons, able to withstand much 
stormy weather, can enjoy life there thoroughly. 

D 



34 NEW ZEALAND. 



Local Climate of Dunedin. 

Dunedin, named after Edinburgh, is its representative 
in climate also. Built on steep hills surrounding a bay 
open at both ends to the north-east and south-west winds, 
it requires great care to select a lodging for an invalid 
winch shall be sufficiently sheltered. The result of 
seventeen years' observations at Dunedin, 550 feet 
above the sea, gives the mean temperature of the whole 
year as 50*72; the maximum is 84 '74, and the 
minimum 29 84. The average temperature for winter 
is 43^ ; for summer 57 ; for spring 50^ ; and for 
autumn 51 '8. 

In my own experience I found the change from 
Auckland, with its 85 to 90 in the shade in the 
summer, to Dunedin, where my thermometer stood at 
47 every night, very delightful. An invalid with 
chronic liver trouble, or liable to congestive head 
attacks, would do well to spend the summer in 
Dunedin. It is a handsome city, with 45,000 in- 
habitants, and furnished with all the educational, 
ecclesiastical, social, and commercial facilities that one 
can possibly desire. The scenery around Dunedin is 
as beautiful as that of Auckland, but of a different 
character. Majestic, stern, bare, cloud-capped moun- 
tains, intersected by boulder- strewn valleys, rise all 
around. The drives round the peninsula to Larnach's 
Castle, across the bay from Dunedin, and to Blueskin 
(visitors miss the scenery by rail) are simply mag- 
nificent. And the walk up the Water of Leith Valley 
to the Eeservoir is the prettiest I have ever seen in the 
suburbs of a large town. In the architecture of its 
churches, banks, city hall, and monuments, and in 
the possession of the Grand Hotel, Dunedin excels its 
three rivals. The severe climate stimulates the 
faculties of business men, and their bustling ways are 
a contrast to the languor of Auckland and the gentle- 
manly deliberation of Christchurch. There is a real 
winter here, of uncertain duration, July being perhaps 



TEE CLIMATES OF NEW ZEALAND. 35 

the most severe month of the year, when sleet, snow, 
and hail descend with a charming variety ! The 
youngsters of Dunedin, Queenstown, and Invercargill 
can sometimes enjoy the luxury of snow-balling fights. 
But for invalids Dunedin is to be avoided in winter and 
spring. Among the residents cases of phthisis pulmon- 
alis, pneumonia, pleurisy, bronchitis, and other lung 
diseases, along with quinsy, diphtheria, and catarrhal 
sore throats, are common. Statistics show, however, 
that Dunedin is a healthy city compared with any 
large city or town in England, and that its birth-rate 
is high. 

The children one sees are rosy, plump, and hardy. 
Two lines of cable tramcars render access to the upper 
parts of the city easy, and the Town Belt, a park 
extending round Upper Dunedin in a semicircle, 
affords a pleasant walk at any time of the year. After 
seeing the rain come down in summer one finds it 
difficult to believe that the average annual rainfall is 
only 32 inches ; but this is the official record. It is 
the only New Zealand city where I found it necessary 
to carry an umbrella every day in the summer. The 
Dunedin Club, occuyping Fernhill House is an excel- 
lent one. On inquiry I found the prices of hosiery, 
drapery, &c., to be as low as in England, and I am 
inclined to think that living there is rather cheaper, 
though house-rent is dearer than in Auckland. 



Local Climate of Queenstown. 

The Alpine resort in summer of the Middle Island 
families and of those tourists who " do " the Southern 
Lakes is Queenstown, on Lake Wakatipu, about 200 
miles west from Dunedin by the rail, which takes a 
circuitous route. From three years' observation taken 
at this weather station, 1070 feet above sea level, we 
find that the mean annual temperature is 51; the 
difference between the coldest and the warmest months 
is 21 ; the maximum being 84, and the minimum. 23. 

D 2 



36 NEW ZEALAND. 

The scenery is perfectly glorious. At the back of 
Queenstown is Ben Lomond, which a lady can ascend 
easily. Opposite the town are the ' Eemarkables,' a 
serrated range of mountains 3000 feet high, where the 
lights of sunset and sunrise are transcendently lovely. 
The lake (pronounced " Waw-Jca-tip," the final "u" 
being silent) is 70 miles long, 112 square miles in area, 
and bounded on the north by the grandest double- 
peaked mountain in the Middle Island, Mount Earns- 
law. At its foot nestle the hamlets of Kinloch and 
Glenorchy, where perfect quiet, primitive but whole- 
some fare, and boating, fishing, riding ad libitum can 
be enjoyed if the visitor tires of the bustle of Queens- 
town. "No lake in Europe can at all equal Lake 
"Wakatipu except Lucerne," says the Hon. J. C. Rich- 
mond, an experienced traveller and clever amateur 
artist. At this elevation many asthmatic sufferers 
enjoy peaceful nights. Invalids suffering from eczema, 
which is worse near the sea, from bronchitis coupled 
with asthma, from glandular swellings and from 
gout, will recover health at Queenstown, if the brief 
summer allows them to stay long enough. In six 
weeks my delicate wife and little son regained perfect 
health by a sojourn at Kinloch. Visitors must provide 
against the cold of the evenings and during the nights. 
Those coming from the North Island, Australia, the 
Cape, India, or the Pacific Islands, will find this whole 
district cold, even though the sun's direct rays are hot. 
The last night I was at Queenstown there was an 
earthquake shock, which was distinctly perceptible, 
but did no damage. I could not help comparing it in 
this peculiarity with Crieff in Scotland, close to Loch 
Earn, where shocks occasionally occur. 



Local Climate of Invercargill. 

Invercargill is the capital of the province of South- 
land, 139 miles south of Dunedin, and seventeen from 
the Bluff Harbour, the southernmost post of call for all 



THE CLIMATES OF NEW ZEALAND. 37 

steamers approaching New Zealand from the south. It 
has now over 10,000 inhabitants, and is an important 
pastofal centre. Invercargill is laid out on the American 
rectangular plan, with wide streets, handsome shops, 
tramcars, and lofty public buildings. The climate of 
the town, like that of Wellington, principally consists 
of "changes of weather." Along its wide streets the 
icy breezes, fresh from the Antarctic Pole, blow, accord- 
ing to the season, dust, sand, sleet, rain, or snow. A 
greater contrast to Auckland could not possibly be 
imagined. A bank clerk who was suddenly moved by 
the head office from Auckland to Invercargill had his 
memory so benumbed by cold that he forgot his over- 
due little bills ! Thunderstorms are more common in 
Southland than elsewhere in the colony, being as 29 '5 
to 18 in Auckland and Mangonui ; 16 in Taranaki ; 
14 in Hokitika; 7 in Dunedin ; and 3*in Christchurch. 
The average annual temperature of Invercargill is 50, 
the maximum temperature in summer being 83, and 
the minimum of winter 20. The average annual rain- 
fall is 43 '67 inches. It is a pity that this winter 
temperature is not low enough to freeze the rabbits 
which constitute the great pest of Southland, destroying 
the pasturage, and thus starving out the sheep. While 
it is only a Scotchman who can live comfortably in 
Southland, I must acknowledge that the children I met 
in the streets of Invercargill are rosy-cheeked, healthy, 
and active. 

ZONE IV. 

forms an irregular ovoid figure on the map, having Lake 
Taupo (1250 feet above the sea) as its centre. Upon 
this sub- Alpine plateau, the lowest part of which is 
1000 feet above sea level, we have a dry, pumiceous, 
and scoria soil and a capital mountain air, which is 
particularly suited for asthmatic and emphysematous 
sufferers, and for those whose shaken nervous system 
requires a light stimulating atmosphere and cool nights. 
The average winter temperature on this plateau does 



38 NEW ZEALAND. 

not exceed 50 during the day, and 30 to 32 during 
the night. The light dry soil soaks up rain quickly, 
and on sunny days (the usual, not as in England, the 
unusual thing) reflects the sun's rays so strongly as to 
thoroughly dessicate the air near to the surface of the 
ground. At the sulphur baths (to be described in 
chapter v.), which abound in this region, the rapid 
cures of rheumatism and of skin diseases are accelerated 
by these characteristics. But the storniiness of the 
weather at all seasons makes it dangerous for consump- 
tive patients to visit or stay at Eotorua or Taupo. 
Ordinary tourists will, however, much enjoy the scenery, 
and find it not only comfortable but pleasant to travel 
through this Zone between December 1st and the 
end of February. Tourists who are not taking the 
thermal treatment, will find the location of this 
sanatorium at Kotorua (Ohinemutu) and the hotel at 
" Joshua's," Taupo, too near the hot steaming pools and 
too highly flavoured with sulphuretted hydrogen fumes 
to be enjoyable. The convenience of the invalids has 
rightly been studied first before all. Means of easy 
communication between Taupo and the wild and 
romantic " King Country " are still wanting, but the 
North Island Trunk Eailway will effect this in due time, 
and then the grand tour sketched out on p. 135 may be 
made. For details of the climate and prevalent weather 
at Rotorua, I refer to chapters v. and vi. 



CHAPTEE III. 

THE MAORIS AND THEIR CUSTOMS. 

The name, origin, and appearance of the Maori Tattooing Lan- 
guage, with specimens Rhyme for pronunciation Grammar 
History of Old New Zealand Causes of their decline Customs 
of tapu, muru, utu explained. Korero, haka, tangi, mana ex- 
plained Bishop Selwyn's defence of Maori character Generous 
deeds Old Mohi Conversions Future of the race. 

ALTHOUGH this little book does not aim at including 
the history and ethnology of New Zealand, yet a few 
pages may be wisely devoted to the subject of the 
aborigines, seeing that the race is slowly but surely 
passing away, and that the Maori has proved himself 
to be the bravest and most intelligent of all the 
Pacific Islanders hitherto encountered by English 
soldiers. 

The " Maori," from a word meaning " native " or 
"indigenous," seems to belong to the brown-skinned, 
that is, to the lighter- coloured races of Polynesia. 
Many books have been written and essays contributed 
to the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute upon 
the " Whence of the Maoris," and so little is known of 
their remote origin that various savants have held that 
they came (1) from Central America ; (2) from Peru ; 
(3) from Hawaii or Samoa ; (4) from Sabea in the south 
of Arabia ; while (5) a learned Hebrew believes them 
to be descendants of the Gibeonites who were made 
slaves by Joshua (see Joshua ix.) as a punishment for 
their deception of him, and who eventually were driven 
out of the Holy Land at the dispersion of Judah. He 
bases this strange theory on some undeniably Semitic 



40 NEW ZEALAND. 

customs and observances among the Maoris. For 
instance, the consecration ceremony at puberty, the 
mourning ceremonial, and the close resemblance of the 
tapu custom in relation to the dead to that of the law 
of uncleanness as delivered through Moses. 

It is remarkable that the Maoris neither manufacture 
a native intoxicant like kava, nor any cloth resembling 
tapa, both productions being universal among their 
reputed ancestors of the South Pacific. 

Whatever may be the correct theory, it is generally 
admitted that the present Maori race came to New 
Zealand about the year 1100 A.D. in canoes, the names 
of the largest of which are still borne by the various 
tribes, or hapus, such as the Arawa, Waikato, Nga- 
puhi, &c. 

It is clear also that they found in these islands an 
aboriginal of a Papuan type, of whom they made slaves, 
as we see by some of their ancient carved temples, 
whare-kura, and as we trace here and there among 
themselves by observing men of short stature, darker 
complexion, brachycephalic skull, full lips, and curly 
and coarse but not woolly hair. 

The pure Maori may be thus sketched. The men are 
tall, muscular, and well formed, the feet and hands 
being well proportioned, though the legs are shorter 
than in the average European. Their average height is 
5 feet 6 inches. The shades of colour of their brown 
skin vary from a tint fairer than that of the Basque or 
South Italian to that of a modified Papuan. The hair 
is usually black, but sometimes dark brown. As a rule, 
there is little or no beard. The features of the chiefs 
are regular and symmetrical, the nose being large and 
often aquiline, in spite of the detestable custom of 
flattening the Maori babies' noses in infancy ; the 
mouth is large, and the lips not as full as in the negro ; 
the eyes are dark, vivacious, and expressive ; the teeth 
are white and regular, lasting to old age. The face is 
greatly under self-command ; for the Maori, while keenly 
observant, and possessing a most tenacious memory, can 
effectually conceal his thoughts and feelings. Yet his 



THE MAORIS AND THEIR CUSTOMS. 41 

fount of tears is always ready ; he can weep at a 
moment's notice. " A Maori may be in a violent rage/' 
says the Eev. J. Buller, " or bitterly weeping, or as 
sulky (pouri) as a mule from the same identical cause." 
The women are handsome, powerful, and muscular, with 
large, dark, lustrous eyes, and long hair of a less coarse 
fibre than that of the men. But they reach maturity 
early in life, and from very heavy work become pre- 
maturely aged and ugly, while the tattooing of the lips 
in blue is to our notions a deformity in every woman 
of whatever age. 

In connection with the custom of tattoo which when 
on the face is called moko, on the body whakaairo 
every adult Maori who could afford the high fee exacted 
by the professional tattoo artist, and every adult woman 
had a right to it, contrary to what visitors are generally 
told, namely, that these marks are distinctive of the 
chief or his family (Buller). 

The language of the Maoris is a dialect nearest akin 
to the Earotongan, Hawaiian, and Samoan. So close a 
family likeness exists between Maori, Samoan, and 
Hawaiian that a Maori can follow the debates in the 
House of Eepresentatives in Honolulu without the aid 
of an interpreter, while a kanaka or Samoan who 
happens to be cast ashore in New Zealand can make 
himself understood by the Maoris. One fundamental 
resemblance in these four Polynesian dialects consists 
in their being composed of monosyllabic root-words, by 
the duplication and combination of which new words 
more complex in their meaning are made. This feature 
also proves that these languages belong to the primaeval 
ages of human speech. Their lingual affinities are also 
very marked. For example, the Maori and Hawaiian 
dialects substitute the aspirated " h " for the sibilant 
" s " and " sh " existing in Samoan. I never heard a 
Maori pronounce our sibilants, and I was informed by 
Judge Maning that only one tribe could be taught to 
utter it. " You give me one herring," said a Maori to 
me at the Hot Lakes. For a time I was nonplussed, 
but a colonial bystander interpreted it to me, " You 



42 NEW ZEALAND. 

give me one shilling," the " 1 " being also lacking in 
Maori. In the Hawaiian and Samoan dialects the " 1 " 
and " k " take the place of " r " and " t " in the Maori 
respectively. 

. As in all the Christian islands of the Pacific, the 
missionaries have reduced the native language to 
writing for the purpose of translating the Holy Scrip- 
tures. The first part of this task was not difficult for 
the ordinary purposes of intercourse, because of the 
simplicity of the structure of the language and the uni- 
formity of the vowel pronunciation ; but owing to the 
non-existence of words conveying abstract ideas the 
work of translation was very hard. 

The Maori alphabet consists of five vowels : a, e, i, o, 
u ; nine consonants : h, k, m, n, p, r, t, w, and ng ; and 
five diphthongs : ae, ai, ao, au, ou, all of which are 
pronounced as in Italian. The palatal sound " ng " is 
very soft, the " g " being inaudible at the beginning of a 
word such as nga-rua-wahia, the two rivers, pronounced 
" Nah-ruah-wahya," whereas in Onehunga the " g " is 
distinct, though not nearly as hard as in the English 
word " hunger." Each consonant must be followed by 
a vowel, and every word in Maori ends in a vowel, though 
elision is practised in rapid utterance, for the English 
visitor hears'Lake Wakatipu called " Wakatip," &c. 

The following jeu d? esprit in rhyme gives a fair idea 
of the sound of the native names of seven places in the 
colony, I underline the seven Maori words : 

" Ohau shall I cross this swift river, Ohau? 

Waikanae not swim to the shore ? 
Otaki a boat now and merrily row 

In the Manawatu did before. 
Orowa-way gently, for you must beware 

Of the Horowhenua afloat. 
Waikawa-rdly stand I and shiver on shore 

Till the ferryman brings me the boat V " 

It is to the credit of the colonial governments of 
New Zealand that they have officially perpetuated the 
Maori names of both mountains, lakes, rivers, valleys, 
bays, and settlements in the colony, for they are most 



THE MAORIS AND THEIR CUSTOMS. 43 

appropriate, sometimes poetical and connoting an 
interesting legend ; always mellifluous ; and the Maori 
language will one day be extinct. But at the same 
time it must be admitted that some names are untrans- 
latable so as to be in accordance with decency. 

A few of the more common words I will now 
translate as a help to those who study the map of our 
colony for the first time. The Maori language is 
copious, consisting of at least six thousand words. 
They gave descriptive names to everything visible in 
earth, sky, or sea, and they have no less than twelve 
names for different shades of colour. Observe that in 
Maori the adjective follows the noun. 

1. The chief numerals are : tahi, 1 ; rua, 2 ; torn, 3 ; 
wlia, 4 ; rima, 5 ; ono, 6 ; whitu, 7 ; warn, 8 ; iwa, 9.,; 
tekau, 10. 

2. Perhaps the commonest root-word at the beginning 
of a name is wai, which means " water." We thus have : 
wai-wera, hot spring ; wai-kato, high river ; wai-heke, 
flowing water ; wai-makiriri, cold river ; wai-roa, tall 
water (a waterfall) ; wai-uku, clay water, &c. 

3. Other common words are roto, lake ; motu, island ; 
wliare, hut or house ; whanga, harbour ; pah or pa, fort ; 
puke, hill ; kai, food ; rangi, sky, heaven ; wako, canoe ; 
mana, power ; maunga, hilL 

4. Among the adjectives useful to know are pai, 
good ; kino, bad ; mate, dead ; pouri, sad or sulky ; poto, 
short ; roa, tall or long ; tapu, sacred ; nui, great. 

In conversation ae (sounded like the Scottish " aye ") 
means " yes ; " kahore, " no." 

The ordinary salutation is " Tena ra ko koe ? " 
literally " Hold ; there you are ! " usually shortened into 
" Tena koe ? " which is colloquially equivalent to our 
" How do you do ? " and the correct reply is, " Tena 
koutou," " How are we both ? " 

The colonists do not trouble to learn Maori, except 
the commonest words and phrases, for he who would 
converse fluently with the natives must live among 
them and study the manner, inflection of voice, the 
gestures, emphasis, and pronunciation of their best 



44 NEW ZEALAND. 

speakers (and they have many very good orators) 
because the same word may have its meaning altered 
by all or any of these arts of oratory. 

A monthly newspaper in Maori, called the "Kori- 
mako " (the name of the Bell bird of New Zealand, now 
nearly extinct), was established and endowed by a 
philo-Maori American gentleman, the late W. P. Snow, 
of Massachusetts, for distribution among the reading 
natives. It has proved of good service in the Gospel 
and temperance work among them, and also as a means 
of diffusing information about Europe and America. 

From it I extract the first verse of the translation of 
Sankey's well-known hymn : 

HOLD THE FORT. 

" E te iwi ! haere ake 

Ki te nui mau 
Haere ake ki te ora 

I te ara hou, 
Puritia mai te Taonga 

Kia piki ai 
Whaia ko te ture tika 

Whaia ko te pwi." 

These lines pronounced as I have indicated on p. 42 
will be found quite euphonious and well adapted to the 
original stirring music. The Maori children have thin 
voices, but not unpleasing, and they sing in admirable 
time. 

When we come to the substantives and verbs, we 
find that Maori possesses not only a singular and plural 
number but also a dual. There are also two pronouns 
denoting the first person plural, " we," namely, matou, 
meaning " we " excluding the person spoken to, and tatou 
" we " including the person addressed. But I must not 
pursue the subject further, lest I should discourage any 
readers who may emigrate to New Zealand from 
learning the native " lingo." 

The first missionaries sent out to convert the Maoris 
had, as I have stated, much difficulty in translating the 
Bible for the want of abstract terms in the Maori. But 
after years of self-devotion, prayerful study, reflection, 



TEE MAORIS AND THEIR CUSTOMS. 45 

and judicious collaboration the task was completed 
about the year 1845, the Old Testament having been 
translated by my friend Dr. Maunsell, Archdeacon of 
Auckland, who still lives, honoured by all who know 
him, and the New Testament by Bishop Williams, who 
has gone to his rest. The first Maori convert, named 
Eangi, was baptized September 14, 1825, after ten 
years' missionary work. The Maoris eagerly learnt to 
read, and showed great shrewdness in questioning their 
teachers on Biblical subjects. And now the whole 
nation are actually or nominally Christian. A lady 
could now traverse even the wild " King country " in 
personal safety. In this day of severe criticism of 
missions and missionaries my readers should notice 
this fact in connection with what I shall describe later 
on. In conveying to the native mind European ideas, 
several words have been introduced by the missionaries 
from the English into the Maori, by splitting up as it 
were our numerous double consonants, e.g. newspaper be- 
comes nupepa ; book, puka-puka ; England, Ingaranga ; 
Auckland, Akarana; Graham, Kerehama ; John, Hone ; 
William, Wiremu ; Featherston, Petatone, &c. 

When the first white men settled in New Zealand, 
the aboriginal Maori was a brave but cruel and blood- 
thirsty athletic savage, reckless of human life, selfish to 
the backbone, revengeful, treacherous according to our 
ideas, yet in time of peace courteous and hospitable to 
the white man pakeha, "foreigner," he was called. 
Mr. E. E. Maning, who wrote two graphic and witty 
books, entitled "Old New Zealand" and "The War 
in the North," under the nom de plume of " Pakeha- 
Maori," describes the country when he landed as a 
Pandemonium, from the constant and furious wars of 
extermination waged by the various tribes (kapus) upon 
each other. There was, he states, ample evidence to 
show that, centuries before, the native population had 
been much more numerous than it was found to be 
when he first settled there. The diseases induced by 
famine and malaria, besides the slaughter in the wars, 
had caused a rapid decrease in the numbers of the 



46 NEW ZEALAND. 

natives. A continuous state of warfare had become so 
much the natural condition of life with the Maori that 
all Ms customs, sentiments, and maxims had been 
formed accordingly. Nothing was so esteemed as 
courage and strength, and to acquire property by war 
and plunder was more honourable and more desirable 
than by honest labour. To kill the wounded and captive 
and to eat your dead enemy was noble and glorious. 
You assimilated by cannibalism all the courage and 
strength as well as the atua, or soul, of the man you 
devoured, besides striking terror into all his tribe. The 
knowledge of this horrible custom was the chief cause of 
the panic that sometimes seized our own soldiers in the 
Maori wars. Our wounded men have been known to 
implore their comrades to kill them rather than let them 
fall into the hands of the cannibal Maoris. 

No aboriginal nation, except perhaps the Zulus, has 
been more difficult to conquer than the Maoris ; and at 
last they obtained an honourable peace from our 
commanders. The bravery, the skill in fortification, in 
attack and defence, and the knowledge of strategy of 
the Maori have extorted admiration from all military 
men who have served in New Zealand. For some 
years after the settlements grew in the colony, the 
intertribal wars became still more sanguinary because 
of the use of firearms. But the spread of Christianity, 
the practice of trade and barter, and the influence of 
the pakeha checked the depopulation by gradually 
substituting the peaceful arts of agriculture and the 
manufacture of articles from the native flax shrub 
(Phormium tenax) for bloody and fruitless war. 

The low morality of the Maori in his heathen state 
conduced to the decrease of the race. His ideas and 
expressions were full of obscenity in ordinary conver- 
sation. Polygamy, infanticide, the abandonment of 
the sick, infirm, and aged ; the suicide of widows, the 
slaughter of all a chief's slaves at his death, and the 
ruthless retaliation of murder upon the innocent were 
universally practised in Maoridom. Latterly, from the 
adoption of European clothes and blankets, from 



THE MAORIS AND THEIR CUSTOMS. 47 

intoxicating drinks, from contagious diseases introduced 
by the white man, and from the swampy, unhealthy 
places often selected by the native for his hut, called 
wharc (built of raupo, a kind of rush, and the leaves of 
the nikau, or cabbage palm) their numbers have been 
declining. But since the New Zealand Government 
have provided free education, free medical advice, and 
medicines, and in some cases free quarters and rations, 
and since intermarriage with the pakeha has become 
common, the annual decrease has been but small. In 
analysing the census returns of 1886, and comparing 
them with those of 1881, the Kegistrar-general of New 
Zealand comes to the following conclusions concerning 
the vitality of the Maori race : 

1. That there is a much smaller birth-rate among 
the Maoris than among the rest of the population. 

2. That there is a higher death-rate at all the younger 
ages of life. 

3. That there is, in addition, a much higher death- 
rate among the adult Maori females than among the 
adult males. 

I shall allude to the diseases prevalent among the 
Maoris in chapter xii. 

There are, it is estimated, though not with exactness, 
about 40,000 natives in the North and about 2000 in 
the Middle and South Islands ; just about the number 
of Lapps remaining in Scandinavia. Thousands of 
these are Christians, many quite consistent in their 
behaviour, and hundreds own horses, oxen, waggons, 
geese, fowls, and bees. In 1881 the Maoris owned 
besides horses no less than 112,850 sheep, 42,103 cattle, 
and 92,091 pigs. What with pigs ad libitum, potatoes, 
kumara, taro, peach and apple trees, and fish everywhere 
in plenty, it is his own fault if the Maori starves. 
Each adult Maori has a vote for one of the four native 
members of the House of Eepresentatives, according to 
his district. There are also two Maoris in the Legis- 
lative Council. There is a native department, with a 
Cabinet minister at its head, and a Native Lands Court 
system specially devoted to Maori interests. More 



48 NEW ZEALAND. 

than 2600 Dative children attend the 79 free schools, 
where, I am glad to state, the English language alone 
is now taught. Some natives, notably those of Hawke's 
Bay and Poverty Bay, have become quite wealthy from 
the sale or lease of their lands to settlers. The ancient 
customs of the Maori are, as might be expected, fall- 
ing into disuse from the spread of civilization and 
Christianity, and from the death of the old warriors 
(ariki) and the tohungas, or priest-magicians, whose arts 
failed them against the superior knowledge, weapons, 
and apparatus of the pakeha. The last of these tohungas, 
old Tuhoto, said to be a centenarian, perished from the 
effects of the Tarawera volcanic eruption in 1886. 
The present generation of adults have less of the 
brutality and ignorance of their ancestors, but have 
acquired some of the white man's vices drunkenness, 
lying, extortion, thieving, and bullying. However, there 
are many exceptions, as I shall presently note. 

For an exact and profound study of the Polynesian 
customs of tapu, mum, utu, and others, I would refer 
readers to Dr. Fornander's book, and to Dr. E. K. 
Tylor's " Manual of Anthropology ; " but a brief 
description of these, of the past meaning of the word 
"mana" and of the ceremonies called karero, tangi, and 
haka, must be permitted. 

1st. The custom of making anything tapu, or sacred, 
or unclean, still survives in some of the remote villages 
or kaingas. But whereas in ancient times there were 
many kinds and degrees of tapu, everything worn or 
used by a chief being tapu, for instance, everything 
worn or used by a stranger who was tapu by the chief 
also, the place of a birth, death, or burial being ditto ; 
and the tohunga being able to tapu any land, hut, person, 
or thing, and likewise by a certain karakia (incantation) 
to release it from tapu, the breach of any of these being 
punishable by death. Nowadays even the burying- 
place, the wahi-tapu, is barely respected by the quarter- 
civilized Maori, and not at all by the colonist. 

2nd. By muru was meant an organised and legal 
confiscation of goods inflicted upon one who killed 



THE MAORIS AND THEIR CUSTOMS. 49 

another by accident, or stole any property belonging 
to another. This muru generally included personal 
chastisement of the offender, who however was allowed 
to protect himself. The pillaging party was called a 
taua-muru, or ' battalion for punishment.' Such was the 
perverted moral sense of the Maori that if a child in a 
family got burned or drowned the rest of the hapu 
would come and inflict muru upon the parents ! 

3rd. The utu or satisfaction for murder (lex talionis), 
theft, or any other crime, identical with the Mosaic 
" eye for an eye," " tooth for a tooth," &c., law, a law 
common to all primitive nations, was rigorously carried 
out among the Maoris. Most of the massacres of the 
boats' crews on the coast of New Zealand in early days, 
and those that take place now in some of the uncivilised 
islands of the Pacific, have been enforcements of utu, 
or blood for blood. For, as the islanders make no 
distinction between Europeans, the crimes of the 
French, German, or Dutch sailors are visited upon the 
more humane Englishman. 

The Maoris always regarded it as just and right to 
kill any members of the hapu or clan to which the 
slayer of their own clansman belonged. Nor had they 
any sacred fane, or city of refuge, as in Israel, where 
the manslayer could find asylum. Many years elapsed 
before they could understand or would submit to the 
English law on the subject of murder. So great has 
been the consideration shown by the successive colonial 
governments for this custom of utu that if a Maori 
murdered a settler for utu and then escaped to his hapu, 
the authorities used merely to demand that he should 
be given up to justice, and if the hapu refused, took no 
steps to enforce the law. Thus was the law of England 
defied ; but this is not now the case. The Government 
of New Zealand would have gone to great lengths then 
rather than provoke a Maori rebellion. But indeed 
there is not much fear of that now, ever since the plucky 
arrest of Te Whiti, the false prophet of the Maoris, at 
Parihaka, by the Hon. John Bryce in 1881, and the 
impressive effect on the native mind of King Tawhiao's 

E 



50 NEW ZEALAND. 

visit in 1884 to England. Those natives who directly 
trade with the settlers, and have tasted the luxuries of 
civilization in the form of money, tobacco, liquors, 
furniture, clothes, silk dresses, watches, jewellery, &c., 
have more common sense than to provoke a rupture 
which would deprive them of these tilings for a time. 
By a wise provision of the law, it is a punishable offence 
for a white man to sell liquor, arms, or ammunition to 
a Maori. Though frequently evaded, this law has done 
much to put down intertribal massacres and murderous 
quarrels, the result of drunken sprees. For it must be 
borne in mind that the Maori drinks liquor in order to 
'get drunk, and knows no such thing as moderate 
drinking. The natives are now amenable to New 
Zealand law, exactly the same as the whites. There is 
very little crime among the Maoris, and what there is 
decreases year by year. 

4th. The korero, or tribal assembly for the public 
discussion of war, peace, or other matters, was always 
held in the whare-puni, or council-room, the largest 
building in the Jcainga, adorned usually with elaborate 
carvings, and painted. The head of each family squatted 
on the ground in a circle round the chief of highest rank 
among them. There was no want of ready speakers. 
One generally finds this to be the case in aboriginals of 
comparatively high cranial development who are not 
possessed of a written language. This circumstance so 
trains the memory that the old chiefs and priests could 
not only recite to the visitor all the old legends many 
of them weird and poetic, some grotesque and indecent 
but could reckon up at least twenty-seven generations 
back with perfect correctness. Furthermore, every 
white man was known by a certain native nick-name, 
derived from some personal peculiarity, and by this 
name was known throughout the Maori nation. Nor 
did any Maori forget a face he had once seen. The 
meetings I have witnessed between Judge Maning and 
Maori friends who had not seen him for twenty, thirty, 
or even forty years were quite affecting so fond were 
thev all of him and were interesting corroborations 



TEE MAORIS AND THEIR CUSTOMS. 51 

of the possession of this gift of quick and tenacious 
observation and memory. To return to the korero, 
however, one orator after another would spring to their 
feet and with mere, a sharp-edged club of greenstone 
(very valuable), or spear in hand, and mat or cloak 
waving from the shoulder, would move up and down 
with stately step, which would quicken to a run when 
the speaker became excited. His length of walk (or 
run) being timed exactly to the length and point of the 
sentences gave a rhythmical cadence which almost 
converted the speech into an operatic recitative. 
Graceful action, impassioned appeal, the chanting of a 
song of love, war, or death, the apt quotation of proverbs, 
legends, and epigrams, and the clever choice of natural 
similitudes all this evinced oratorical power of a high 
order. At the end of the korero the tribal policy 
resolved upon was announced by the chief, and a feast 
terminated the proceedings. 

For the preservation of the best Maori legends and 
poetry, Sir George Grey, who has had such a marked 
success in his diplomacy with the natives, has done 
more than any other living man. For the story of the 
good " Maui," who is fabled to have brought up New 
Zealand from the depths of the ocean hence its name 
" Te Ika o Maui," " the fish of Maui ; " for the pretty 
story of Hinemoa and Tutanekai and other legends, 
readers are referred to the collection made by Sir George 
Grey, to Domett's " Eanolf and Amohia," and to works 
by J. White, T. W. Gudgeon, E. Tregear, and others. 

5th. The celebrated haka, or national dance, similar 
to the hula-hula of the Hawaiians, seems to have gone 
out of fashion, and the tame and "got up" imitations 
of it by travelling Maori troupes, or by native loafers 
to amuse visitors at the Hot Lakes are not like what 
the old settlers saw. It was a dance of an indecorous 
nature, accompanied by the chanting of amorous songs, 
and was usually performed by the women only. As I 
have never had the opportunity of seeing one, I cannot 
describe it, and it is the unanimous wish of the philo- 
Maori that it should be allowed to disappear. 

E 2 



52 NEW ZEALAND. 

6th. The tangi, or weeping, meant originally the 
ceremonial mourning for the death of a chief or great 
man, but the weeping was also practised on the occasion 
of meeting a long-absent relative or friend. The entire 
tangi ceremony, of which I was fortunate enough to 
be a spectator at Ohinemutu, in December, 1880, in 
company with Judge Maning, Mr. S. Jackson, sen., 
and Mr. B. Proude, is an interesting relic of the 
elaborate and demonstrative mournings for the dead 
common to most primitive nations, of which we read in 
Genesis 1., Numbers xx., Samuel xxxi., Zechariah xii., 
and other parts of the Old Testament. 

I will briefly describe what we saw at Ohinemutu. 
The chief who had died was of high rank, and the 
visitors were expected to consider it an honour to be 
invited to this tangi. The leader of our party of four, 
Judge F. E. Maning, being a great favourite with the 
Maoris, was specially urged to attend, and was good 
enough to translate to us much of what was " said or 
sung," 

Many natives walking in to Te Ngae, the name of 
the mission station where the tangi was being held, 
were overtaken by our carriage, and everyone greeted 
the worthy judge with enthusiasm. Most had come 
long distances to do honour to the deceased. 

The body of the dead chief had been laid on a bier, 
wrapped in flax mats, but leaving the head exposed, 
which was decorated with feathers; the sons and 
nearest relatives of the deceased were seated on the 
ground near the corpse. As each visitor arrived he or 
she went straight up to the body, and was greeted by 
each relative by the hongi, or rubbing of noses, the 
Maori substitute for kissing, followed by each em- 
bracing the other and weeping upon the neck, in true 
Eastern fashion. Eound the inner circle of relatives 
were the professional mourners, women who continued 
all day a wailing chant without words, like the " keen- 
ing" at an Irish wake. Some of these women also 
kept up another ancient custom, that of cutting their 
faces, arms, and breasts with pieces of obsidian and 



THE MAORIS AND THElfi CUSTOMS. 53 

sharp-edged shells, making the blood flow mildly, 
however, not as profusely as described so graphically 
in " Old New Zealand " by my departed friend, Judge 
Maning, who remarked the contrast of the old-time 
tangi and the modern affair. Each native visitor 
joined in the wailing for a few minutes and then 
mixed in the crowd that sat around. Some of the 
women kept lifting their hands to heaven, quivering 
in that strange way one sees Maoris do when under 
real or assumed excitement. All this went on until 
sundown, when the funeral feast was spread, the 
pakehas being cordially invited. Huge piles of pork, 
cooked in the Maori ovens, of potatoes, sweet potatoes, 
bread, and koura (a very palatable fresh- water crayfish), 
were vigorously attacked by the company. The only 
incongruous and injurious element in the repast was the 
whisky passed round by a white man, who wished to 
ingratiate himself with the natives, and perhaps once 
again become Minister of the Native Department. I 
was glad to see many Maoris refuse it, being total 
abstainers. Up to the time (9 P.M.) our party left 
there was no intoxication. 

In old times the corpse of the cliief was wrapped in 
his best garment and buried in the ground in a sitting 
posture, his face turned towards the north, where is Te 
Eeinga, the Maori Hades (somewhere about Cape 
Maria van Diemen); or placed in a tree in the 
darkest recesses of an adjacent forest. Then, after 
about two years, the body was exhumed, the bones 
were scraped clean, painted red, and, with another 
tangi, placed either (1) in a small house resting on a 
pole, or (2) on the top of a sacred (tapu) tree, or (3) in a 
cave difficult of access. Nowadays Christian burial is 
the rule, and the bone-scraping with its attendant and 
subsequent ceremonies is a thing of the past. 

7th. The word " vnana" so freely used in Maori 
traditions, and in all literature descriptive of the 
Maoris, deserves a passing explanation. Its meaning, 
according to the way in which it is used by the speaker, 
comprises prestige, power, influence, and a certain 



54 NEW ZEALAND. 

magical property which we call "luck," the Germans 
" gliick," the Eomans " virtus." 

There was the mana of a tohunga, or priest, which 
was proved by the truth of his predictions. Some of 
these gentry were skilled in ventriloquism (vide " Old 
New Zealand"), which gave them great mana. The 
success of a chief or warrior gave him mana, which he 
might lose by subsequent defeat. A spear, club, or 
mere may have a mana which by tradition had become 
regarded, like King Arthur's sword Excalibur, as some- 
thing supernatural. 

Among the leading men of the colony who have had 
the greatest mana with the Maoris have been the first 
Bishop Selwyn, Sir George Grey, Dr. Featherston, and 
Eobert Graham, Esq. 

Some colonists have complained that while the 
Maori has a sense, though limited, of justice and of 
honesty, he has no gratitude, and is selfish and covetous. 
To this charge a noble answer was made by the great 
Bishop Selwyn, the founder of the Church of England 
in New Zealand. " When I hear of the covetousness 
and ingratitude and selfishness of the Maoris," said 
he, " I have only to look into the faces of Henry and 
Lot [his two native lay helpers], the most helpful, the 
least self-seeking, and the best tempered of all com- 
panions, and forget all the accusations brought against 
their race by Englishmen who see their own failings 
reflected in the native mirror, without recognizing them 
as their own. The charges of ingratitude made against 
the natives are generally made by those who have 
given them the least reason to be grateful. For myself 
I must say that I have met with so much disinterested 
kindness from the Maoris that I should be as un- 
grateful as they are supposed to be if I did not 
acknowledge my obligations." I can corroborate from 
personal experience the testimony of this great and 
good man. Even though the Maori language does not 
contain words directly meaning gratitude, hope, faith, 
and other abstract ideas, yet the Maori can express these 
sentiments in his simple and terse way. We must not 



THE MAORIS AND THEIR CUSTOMS. 55 

take our ideas of the typical Maori, as so many 
transient visitors do, from the loafing, shilling-hunting, 
grog-drinking Maori of the Eotorua and Taupo districts 
a man who has lost all the virtues of the savage and 
gained the vices of the European. Should we, as 
Englishmen, like to be judged as a race from many of 
our fellow-countrymen who haunt our show places and 
attend our horse-races ? The history of the colony 
shows the Maori in a far from unfavourable light on 
the whole. Even during their wars of independence 
the natives showed generosity to their foes. At 
Kororareka they captured Lieutenant Philpotts, a son of 
the celebrated Bishop of Exeter, and in admiration of 
his bravery not only released him, but returned him 
his pistols and sword. In the war of 1863, the hostile 
chief, hearing that General Cameron's forces were 
short of provisions, sent down the river Waikato 
canoes carrying a large supply of food for our soldiers. 
A chief's daughter, baptized as Julia, and her husband 
saved the entire crew of the ship Delaware, which was 
wrecked on the coast at Wakapuaka, near Nelson 
(Middle Island), by bravely swimming out in the 
breakers with a rope to a rock from which they threw 
it on board the ship. Space fails to mention many 
other pleasing facts of a like kind. An eminent young 
Baptist Christian, Graham Tawhai, whose early death, 
a few years since, was widely deplored, showed what a 
grand character natural talent, deep conscientiousness, 
early conversion to the faith, and a good education 
could evolve from a pure-blooded Maori, the descendant 
of thirty generations of cannibal ancestors. An in- 
teresting little book, entitled " Our Maoris," by Lady 
Martin, narrates many touching incidents of genuine 
conversions to Christianity and of adherence to the 
faith, in the face of ridicule (to which all Maoris are 
keenly susceptible), boycotting, persecutions, and war. 
Old " Mohi," as he is called, Moses being his baptismal 
name, one of the converts mentioned in this book, is 
personally known to me. For more than thirty years 
he has been an honest and faithful servant, first to 



56 NEW ZEALAND. 

the Hon. William Swainson until his death, and 
latterly to Sir George Grey, and a consistent Christian. 
He speaks very little English, but travellers would, by 
the aid of an interpreter, find a talk with him very 
interesting, as he is one of the few remaining living 
links with the past ages of Maori heathendom. 

No Polynesian race has shown a greater aptitude for 
civilization than the Maori. The wonderful vigour and 
tenacity of life of the Maori race induce me. to believe 
that in time they will blend into the mixed nation called 
" young New Zealand," just as the Celts have blended 
into our Anglo- Saxon-Danish-No rman nation, and that 
the ranks of this young nation will furnish to the world 
orators, politicians, poets, merchants, and warriors equal 
in bravery, ability, and energy to any of those born of 
a purely white race. 



CHAPTER IV. 

AUCKLAND, THE NAPLES OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Its position Geographical and commercial importance The 
Corinth of the South The third city in Australasia by popula- 
tion Sheltered harbour Graving docks Picturesque approach 
to the city Public buildings Grey collection of MSS. City 
government Newspapers Ueve'opments of Art, Music, Science 
and Literature Queen Street shopping Telephones Halls and 
theatres Y. M. C. A. building Ostrich farming Acclimatized 
farmers Wonderful growth of the city during past nine years. 

As the limited space of this volume will not permit 
a detailed description of all the four chief cities of the 
colony, I have selected the place of my residence for 
nine years, many features of which find their counter- 
parts in the other New Zealand towns. 

The city of Auckland, situated in south latitude 
36 50', and east longitude 174 50', is the metropolis of 
the Auckland Provincial District, the climatic cha- 
racters of which have been described in chapter ii. 
This district extends from the North Cape southwards 
to Gisborne, and thence westwards along the 39th 
parallel of latitude to the Tuhua and Mokau rivers, and 
contains an area of seventeen million acres, or about 
one-fourth of the whole area of the colony. The 
population of this area has increased from 85,773 in 
1878 to 135,627 in the year 1887. In the latter year 
there were 4286 births (including one case of triplets 
and 47 twin births), 833 marriages the largest number 
in any province during 1887 and 1501 deaths. The 
population of the City of Auckland has increased even 
more rapidly than that of the district. For by the 
last official census. (1886), if we place Auckland in the 



58 NEW ZEALAND. 

same plane with the cities of Wellington, Christchurch, 
and Dunedin, by including her suburbs, " we are struck 
by the fact," says the Evening Star, " that her popula- 
tion amounts to 62,000, thus placing her in the position 
of the premier city of New Zealand, and the third city 
in Australasia." That is to say, Auckland comes after 
Sydney and before Adelaide in population. The order 
of the New Zealand chief cities then, according to the 
EveniTig Star, is 

Auckland .... 62,000 

Dunedin .... 46,205 

Christchurch .... 39,000 

Wellington .... 27,000 

A glance at our map of New Zealand will show that 
Auckland, situated on the inlet of the Hauraki Gulf, 
called Waitemata, is the northernmost, and therefore 
nearest to Australia (Sydney), to the Pacific Islands, 
and to America, of the four provincial capitals. This 
geographical advantage makes it the Liverpool of the 
colony, for it will become the great distributing port 
when once the North Island Trunk railway connects it 
with Wellington ; and this advantage will be enhanced by 
the opening of the Panama Canal at some not too distant 
day, let us hope. The opening of the Canal would 
bring Auckland within twenty-eight days of Liverpool. 
It has been called the " Corinth of the South," because 
of its site on an isthmus between the east and west 
coast. By Onehunga, distant only six miles by rail, on 
the Manukau harbour, it commands the traffic to New 
Plymouth, Wellington, and Nelson southwards, and 
that to the Kaipara district northwards (see map No. 1). 
Froude so aptly terms it the Naples of Maoriland, and 
the " City of Delightful Views," that I have borrowed 
part of his first epithet for my chapter heading. No- 
where in the whole of New Zealand is the dolce far 
niente so alluring as in Auckland, where the lazzaroni 
are faintly represented by the Maoris, and Vesuvius by 
Eangitoto or Mount Eden both, however, dead apo- 
logues of their living prototype. There is not in the 



AUCKLAND, TEE NAPLES Of NEW ZEALAND. 59 

Southern Hemisphere a more extensive or lovely scene 
than the panorama of Auckland, its suburbs, its 
harbour, its islands, the coasts on both sides of the 
North Island, and the hill ranges on the south viewed 
on a clear sunny day from the summit of Mount Eden. 
Nor is there a more enjoyable drive anywhere in the 
colony than from Queen Street to St. John's College 
through Remuera, and back by Ellerslie and the Great 
South Road. 

The founding of the settlement of Auckland took 
place in 1840, when Queen Street was a marshy valley, 
down which a sluggish stream found its way to the sea. 
It became the seat of government on the 19th of Sep- 
tember, 1840, and retained that proud position until the 
Imperial authorities moved the capital to Wellington, 
as being more central, in 1865, during the premiership 
of my friend, Sir Frederick Aloysius Weld, K.C.M.G. 
The blow to Auckland was great for a time, but it 
rapidly emerged into prosperity again, the Thames 
goldfields bringing in population, capital and machinery. 
The clay hills abutting on the harbour were cut down, 
scarped, and terraced for residences. Queen Street 
developed into the main business artery of the city, and 
streets were cut out of the hills, at right angles to it, 
up to the foot of Upper Queen Street, where several 
side streets debouch in a fan-shape at the present day. 
The rapid growth of the population may be judged of 
when I state that in the period between the two last 
censuses those of 1881 and 1886 Auckland increased 
by 62 per cent., while in the ten years between 1871 
and 1881 Melbourne had only increased by 37 per cent., 
and Sydney by 64 per cent. Our photograph in the 
frontispiece is the only one obtainable on a small scale, 
showing the prettiest part of the view looking north- 
east from Mount Eden, the houses in the foreground 
being those in Symonds Street and Grafton Road. 
Besides the numerous islands (Great and Little 
Barrier, Tiri-tiri, Waiheke, Motutapu, Motuihi) that 
shelter the Waitemata harbour we have, in this view, 
the extinct crater island of Rangitoto (1), built up by 



60 NEW ZEALAND. 

Nature from the bottom of the sea, whose summit is 
902 feet above high-water mark, and the long, narrow 
peninsula called the North Shore, with its two extinct 
craters of the North Head (2) and Mount Victoria (3), 
344 feet in height, which guard still more surely the 
tranquillity of the waters from the storms which rage 
outside. The breadth of the harbour, at its entrance, 
opposite the North Head (2) is two miles. The borough 
of Devonport (4) is about three miles from Queen Street 
Wharf. In the illustration, the small portion of the 
adjacent eastern suburb of Parnell (8) is visible, also 
Mechanics' Bay (7), the Supreme Court (6), where the 
assizes are held ; the Government House (5), where the 
Governor lives when he visits Auckland, and a glimpse 
of the Albert Park (10) of fifteen acres, beautifully laid 
out, where a band plays in summer, and whence charm- 
ing views are obtained of the harbour and islands. To 
the right of the foreground of our photograph, but only 
marked by the tops of two trees is the Domain, a lovely 
but " unkempt " park of 196 acres in area, dividing 
Auckland from the borough of Parnell, and containing 
the finest cricket ground in the colony, so large that 
fifteen matches have been played simultaneously upon 
it. Besides hundreds of acclimatized trees and shrubs 
from every part of the world, the Domain displays the 
native flora of this part of New Zealand. Otherwise 
the visitor will not find the native shrubs growing any- 
where until he reaches Eemuera, where there is a patch of 
the Manuka bush, the Ti-tree (Leptospermum ericoides). 
The Kauri is not to be found nearer than Waikomiti, 
eleven miles to the north-west. Queen Street lies to the 
left of our picture, outside its limits. 

The boast of Auckland being its facilities and 
advantages as a port, let us state a few facts which 
amply justify this. Queen Street terminates at its 
harbour end in a fine wharf 1680 feet long, having a 
depth of 24 feet at low spring tides. Thus any of the 
largest steamers (5000 tons) that visit Auckland can 
lie, load, and unload at the city, instead of being eight 
miles away at a separate seaport, as in the case of 



AUCKLAND, THE NAPLES OF NEW ZEALAND. 61 

Christclmrch (Lyttelton) and Dunedin (Port Chalmers). 
There are two other wharves, the railway wharf, 1000 
feet long, and Hobson Street wharf, 500 feet. The 
old graving dock is near the latter. The new graving 
dock, called " Calliope Dock," after having been 
opened by the ironclad of that name in 1887, is the 
largest south of the line, being 550 feet long, 83 feet 
wide, and 33 feet deep on the sill. It cost the Auckland 
Harbour Board 150,000, and has greatly enhanced 
the value of the port as a place for the repair of the 
large vessels of her Majesty's navy and of large 
steamers. The " fairway " of the channel is so capa- 
cious that even at low water several large steamers, 
ships, and war ships can ride together at anchor without 
fear of colliding or of grounding. Sir W. F. D. Jervois, 
the late Governor, whose departure is still regretted, 
stated in his " Eeport on the Defences of New Zealand " 
that there is no harbour in Australasia more suitable 
for naval defence. In accordance, therefore, with his 
advice powerful batteries have been erected on Stark's 
Point, North Head, and Mount Victoria (North Shore), 
and at Parnell, on Point Ptesolution. " It is worthy of 
note," says Brett's Almanac, " that for the last fifty years 
not a single shipping accident of any great importance 
has occurred in this harbour." The port of Auckland 
is the last place of departure and the first of arrival of 
the American steamers which at present carry the 
monthly mail between New South Wales, New Zealand, 
and the United States, delivering them in eighteen to 
twenty days from Auckland to San Francisco, whence 
they are forwarded across to New York, reaching London 
generally in thirty-four or thirty-five days from New 
Zealand. The Direct Mail steamers of both lines visit 
Auckland as cargo requires ; the Colonial Line run regu- 
larly ; the Union Steamship Company of New Zealand 
have much traffic there ; the Northern Steamship Com- 
pany have their headquarters there ; and, besides large 
ocean ships, there is a very large fleet of smaller ships 
trading to the Pacific Islands. During the year 1887 
there entered the port 4085 vessels, of the aggregate 



62 NEW ZEALAND. 

tonnage of 355,608 tons; and 3850 vessels of 393,342 tons 
total cleared the port. The crews of inward and outward 
vessels numbered no less than 56,067 men. In tonnage 
Auckland exceeds that of any other New Zealand port. 
Let us now imagine ourselves entering the harbour 
from the ocean. Having passed the island of Tiri-tiri, 
marked by its lighthouse, we obtain, as we coast along 
the north or ocean side of the North Shore peninsula, 
our first glimpse of the picturesque city across the low- 
lying land near Lake Takapuna. It reminds some 
travellers of the first distant sight of Constantinople 
and the Golden Horn, and gives the impression of a 
greater area than the city covers in reality. Two 
groups of hills with a valley between them are covered 
with houses, churches, public buildings, and gardens, as 
far as the eye can reach. In a few minutes we lose 
sight of Auckland, and do not regain it till we pass 
round the North Head on our right hand, leaving the 
curious round island-volcano, Rangitoto (the meaning 
of which is " bloody sky ") on our left. We pass 
another island, Waiheke, away upon our left, before 
turning round the Head. The Bean Rock lighthouse 
now guides us to the channel. On the left we now 
have the wealthiest and most highly ornate suburb of 
Auckland, called Remuera (pronounced " Rem-u-air-a "), 
where the hospitable commercial magnates mostly live. 
Steaming further on, Parnell, with some lovely residences 
and gardens sloping to the water's edge, is passed on 
the left, Devonport and the big dock on the right, and 
then Auckland, " the Queen City of the Pacific," as my 
friend Mr. Consul Griffin enthusiastically styles her, is 
reached. The existence of the batteries, torpedoes, and 
submarine mines, which defend the harbour, is so care- 
fully concealed, that an air of perfect peacefulness and 
security pervades the scene. On the Devonport side the 
broken-up irregular outline of the rocky beach, resem- 
bling that of Biarritz, and the luxuriant verdure of the 
hills and trees, serve to heighten the picturesqueness of 
the brightly painted and verandah-shaded houses. On 
the city side the handsome Hospital, standing on an 



AUCKLAND, THE NAPLES OF NEW ZEALAND. 63 

eminence in its own capacious reserve, the church of 
the Holy Sepulchre, the red-and-white Supreme Court, 
and Government House arrest attention. Auckland, 
we see, is built on groups of clay and scoria hills, inter- 
sected by valleys all trending to the sea, and is backed 
up by volcanic peaks, like Honolulu, one of which, 
Mount Eden, is 644 feet high, and is now utilized as 
a reservoir. A lively district must this have been in 
ancient times, for Dr. Hochstetter counted no less than 
sixty-three distinct craters within a ten-mile radius ! 
However, no fear is felt now of any revival of volcanic 
action, especially since the outburst of Tarawera, 
chronicled in chapter vii., has relieved the pent-up forces 
in that district, 120 miles distant. Looking up Queen 
Street, the main thoroughfare, we notice the Baptist 
Tabernacle, built for the son of Mr. C. H. Spurgeon, 
which holds the largest congregation in the city. 

Farther up the harbour, on the Auckland side, the 
charming residences and gardens of Ponsonby extend 
along the cliffs. A singular-looking island, called the 
Watchman, stands in mid-channel, while to the right, 
on high ground, stand the North Shore suburbs, North- 
cote, Birkenhead, and Chelsea. If we wish, we can 
steam fifteen miles farther up the Waitemata, meeting 
delightful views at every turn. The abundant sun- 
shine, illuminating an atmosphere absolutely free from 
smoke and fog, reflected from the sparkling blue waters 
of the harbour, and from the gaily painted houses, the 
numbers of pleasure-boats darting here and there, and 
the absence of all appearance of squalor and poverty 
all combine to make one love Auckland at first sight. 

Though not yet quite half a century old, Auckland is 
very well provided by the Government, by the city coun- 
cil, and by the munificence of its citizens, with public 
buildings. Sir George Grey, J. T. Mackelvie, Edward 
Costley, Dr. Campbell, and others, have literally 
bestowed the accumulations of their lifetimes in art, 
literature, science, and money upon their fellow-towns- 
men. The special pride of the educated Aucklanders 
is the Free Library and Art Gallery recently built in 



64 NEW ZEALAND. 

Wellesley Street East, at the cost of 40,000, by the 
city, because it is enriched by the noble gift of Sir 
George Grey's priceless collection of old MSS., rare 
books, autographs, antiquities, and ethnological curio- 
sities. Sir George Grey presented it to the city in 
1887 as a free gift for ever. Having inspected these 
treasures myself at his beautiful home in the Kawau 
Island, seven years before the generous donor presented 
them to Auckland (where he now resides), I may be 
permitted to make an extract from my note on that 
occasion. " Some of the gems of the collection are the 
following: The MS. of the Four Gospels, tenth 
century, with a picture of St. Matthew ; the MS. from 
which the first Bible was printed by Gutenberg in 
1450 ; a copy of the first Dutch Bible, and of the first 
book printed at Delft in 1477 ; a Missal ad mum (2 vols.) 
written on vellum, fifteenth century, in Gothic hand, 
with music of the chants and sixty- three miniatures, each 
six inches square ; a Petrarch on vellum, with miniature 
portraits of the finest kind ; a rare copy of the first 
Malagasy Bible ; a New Testament in the aboriginal 
language, now extinct, of New South Wales, and a 
dictionary of another extinct language, the Cree 
Indian ; the original MS. of the secret treaty Cromwell 
made with the Low Countries ; the signatures of Marie 
Antoinette and Louis XVI. ; autograph letters of 
Cromwell, Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, Livingstone, 
Moifat, Florence Nightingale, Carlyle, Thiers, and of 
many other famous men and women." 

If even the services rendered to New Zealand by her 
most distinguished statesman are in time forgotten, the 
Grey Library, unless destroyed by fire (which Heaven 
forefend !), will immortalize his name and fame. 

The various philanthropic and religious institutions 
aided or constructed out of the magnificent legacy of 
nearly 100,000 left by Edward Costley, an Irish 
mechanic who amassed money in the early days of 
Auckland, and lived so frugally as to be called a miser, 
are seven in number The Sailors' Eest and Home, 
the Kohimarama Training School, the Costley Indus- 



AUCKLAND, TEE NAPLES OF NEW ZEALAND. 65 

trial Home, the Parnell Orphan Asylum, the District 
Hospital, the Old People's Eefuge, and the Free Library. 
The Sailors' Home, including the Sailors' Eest, founded 
by Bishop Cowie in 1881 " for the physical, moral, and 
spiritual benefit of the seafaring community," was built 
out of the Costley legacy of 12,150, and opened 
in 1887. An excellent site was given gratis by the 
Harbour Board, near the graving-dock at the foot of 
Albert Street. The cost, including furniture, was 
4500, and an endowment income of 500 a year was 
still left. The building is a credit to the city, and 
harmonises well with the adjacent handsome Harbour 
Board offices. The Home accommodates fifty inmates, 
and is largely used by sailors, especially when ships of 
her Majesty's navy are in port. The mission work 
among sailors, oyster-men, fisher-boys, and longshore- 
men, in which ladies take a part, goes on earnestly and 
successfully. In no other New Zealand seaport is so 
much done as in Auckland to give them a hearty wel- 
come and to keep them out of temptation and danger. 

The Costley Industrial Home, under the wise man- 
agement of Colonel Haultain and Captain Daldy, gives 
free board and education to poor boys of good character 
until they are of an age to be apprenticed to trades. 
After that it still supports them until they are able to 
earn their living. The endowment income from the 
Costley legacy accruing to the Free Library is set apart 
for the annual purchase of books. The other insti- 
tutions enriched by Costley need no special description, 
except that of all the blessings showered upon his tomb 
none can be more fervent than that of the poor old 
men and women of the Eefuges who are about to 
change their damp and unhealthy abode for a spacious 
and salubrious country residence. 

The large and imposing building of the Young Men's 
Christian Association in Wellesley Street West is the 
centre of much aggressive Christian work. I believe 
the building cost 7500. The Eev. J. S^ Hill was 
when I left its energetic president. On the top floor 
of this building is to be found the best-equipped 

F 



66 NEW ZEALAND. 

gymnasium in the colony. The lecture-room will seat 
700, and has the best acoustic properties of any room I 
ever spoke in. Under the auspices of the Young Men's 
Christian Association, Major Dane, Joseph Cook, the 
Earl of Aberdeen, and other distinguished visitors have 
addressed large audiences in the City Hall, which is the 
transformed Theatre Royal of old. In 1888 the aged 
but vigorous Pastor George Muller addressed crowded 
audiences here for several weeks. In 1887 the Countess 
of Aberdeen delivered an address to above 500 ladies of 
Auckland, including the large Young Women's Christian 
Association, which for love, pathos, and wisdom was 
almost the best I ever read. Should these pages ever meet 
the eye of the gracious lady who thus cheered the hearts 
of the toilers of her own sex in that distant city, let me 
assure her that there were hundreds who benefitted by 
its perusal in the papers who could not even get near 
the door of the building. 

The Auckland Savings Bank is a handsome building 
in Queen Street, built out of the profits of the first twenty 
years of its existence. The architecture of the other 
banks is not equal to that of similar buildings in 
Christchurch or Dunedin. The Post and Telegraph 
Office in Shortland Street is scarcely large enough for 
the rapidly increasing mail business of the city. The 
Choral Hall in Symonds Street seats 900 persons, and is 
owned by the Choral Society, who enjoy the distinction 
of being the only society of the kind in Australasia 
who own their hall. The orchestra and chorus number 
about 150, and at least five subscription concerts of 
high-class music, conducted by Herr Schmitt, are given 
every season. Distinguished visitors are sometimes 
honoured by a special concert, and leave Auckland 
highly pleased with the excellence of the performances. 
The latest development, I learn by the newspapers, is a 
Ladies' Orchestra. It is in contemplation to build a 
town hall and also a Mackelvie Art Gallery. I have 
110 space to mention all the other public buildings. 

Auckland is governed by a mayor, elected annually 
by the whole body of ratepayers, as in the United 



AUCKLAND, THE NAPLES OF NEW ZEALAND. 67 

States, and by eighteen councillors, two for each of the 
nine wards into which the city is divided. The municipal 
debt is 424,000 ; the rateable value of real estate in 
1887 was 367,822 ; and the rates amounted to two 
shillings in the pound. The endowments of the city 
from leaseholds amount to 10,000 per annum. A 
recent loan, negotiated in London, realized the highest 
price ever obtained for a colonial security in the 
London market. The city is fairly well drained and 
lighted ; has an excellent water supply ; fresh and salt 
water baths ; is well paved ; and well supplied with 
trams, omnibuses, and cabs. The electric lighting of 
a part of the city and of the wharves is being arranged 
for. The telephone system is a great success in 
Auckland, there being over 500 subscribers already to 
the Exchange. Telephones are a Government monopoly, 
but are very moderate in cost, namely, 10 for the first 
year and 8 a year afterwards; consequently doctors 
and chemists invariably use them, and business men 
have their residences and offices connected by telephone. 

The newspapers of Auckland are well conducted and 
widely read. The New Zealand Herald is the only 
daily morning paper (2c?.), and the Auckland Evening 
Star (Id.) is now the only evening paper; its certified 
circulation is 11,500 daily. By means of cablegrams 
and enterprising English and American correspondents 
the Auckland public are kept well informed of what is 
passing in the world. The great questions of policy, 
imperial or colonial, are often ably treated in the 
leading articles. I have often been thankful that there 
is no Whig or Tory in New Zealand, for there is no 
" Government by party ; " nor is there that acerbity in 
the discussion of burning questions in the newspapers 
of New Zealand that one finds at home. The two 
parties in New Zealand consist of the " Ins " and the 
" Outs," and it is curious to see the same newspaper 
advocating the " Ins " at one time and the " Outs " at 
another. 

In Art, Music, Science, and Literature Auckland is 
quite in the front rank of New Zealand cities. The 

F 2 



68 NEW ZEALAND. 

annual Art Exhibition held by the Society of Arts is a 
most successful one, and elicits from visitors a large 
mead of praise. In chapter xi. I shall allude more 
particularly to the development of Art in Auckland. 
In Music, Auckland may, without conceit, claim to be 
the premier city in New Zealand, for it has now a Chair 
of Music in its University College, the first occupant 
of which, Professor Carl von Schmitt, Knight of two 
foreign orders, is a distinguished musician and most 
enthusiastic in his work. It is his intention to establish 
a Conservatoire of Music in Auckland which shall give 
a complete musical education to the student. His 
numerous compositions are of high merit, and should be 
known in England as well as in Germany. Except in 
that country there is no town of the size of Auckland 
that has so many students of promising talent in all 
branches of music. The genial climate, the colouring 
of the sky and sea, the surrounding scenery, and perhaps 
a certain dreamy languor belonging to the air creates 
artistic longings which find their expression in poetry, 
music, or painting. 

Science is represented by the Auckland branch of 
the New Zealand Institute, by the small but well- 
arranged Museum, and by the Science Department of 
the University College. The membership of the Auck- 
land Scientific Institute is about 300, and its meetings 
are held in the winter in the lecture-room of the 
Museum, to the painstaking, learned, and courteous 
Director of which, Mr. Cheeseman, I must here express 
my obligations for much kind assistance in scientific 
matters. A Field Naturalists' club and a Microscopical 
club have arisen from among the members of the 
Institute. 

In literature the Athenaeum Society takes the lead 
and is doing good work. Its meetings are held in the 
winter in the Arcade building, and the subjects dis- 
cussed range over a wide area. There are numerous 
literary societies in connection with the various denomi- 
nations, and frequent popular scientific and literary 
lectures are delivered in the rainy season. 



AUCKLAND, THE NAPLES OF NEW ZEALAND. 69 

There is only one theatre at present in Auckland, 
Abbott's Opera House, in which operas, dramas, and 
other entertainments are given with very little inter- 
mission all the year round. The city is well off for 
amusements both outdoor and indoor. The grounds of 
Government House are open for lawn tennis, and 
there are several other clubs for that amusement (see 
chapter xi.). 

Cycling, rinking, bowling, yachting, canoeing, boating 
and fishing are the chief outdoor amusements. No 
maritime city is better off for excursions by sea than 
Auckland. The delightful health resort called Waiwera, 
twenty-six miles north-east of Auckland, the Kawau 
Island (until lately Sir George Grey's home) Motutapu, 
where red deer may be shot by invited guests, Coro- 
mandel, the Thames, and other places within easy reach 
are greatly resorted to on holidays. Three miles out 
from the city, southwards, are the Athletic Clubs' 
Recreation Grounds, where the international, inter- 
colonial, and other football matches are contested, 
always attended by thousands of spectators, 

Apropos of matches, hundreds of boys manage some- 
how by acrobatic feats on trees and posts to get a free 
sight of some of these, to the disgust of the managers of 
the Athletic Eecreation Grounds. But an incident 
which was an exception to the proverbial love of Auck- 
landers for a "free show" is narrated of the visit of 
" Professor " Baldwin, the aeronaut and parachutist, 
who performed his ascent and descent in Auckland in 
the summer of 1889. Thousands of sightseers assembled 
on Mounts Eden and Hobson, where they had an 
excellent view of the performance without payment. 
But during the following week, Baldwin's agent was 
inundated with letters containing stamps for the amount 
of the gate-money a circumstance which deserves 
chronicling, as being honourable to Auckland citizens. 
It has become the usual thing for the mayor to order 
a public half-holiday when a football or cricket match 
comes off. 

A new attraction has been lately added to Auck- 



70 NEW ZEALAND. 

land, in the shape of an ostrich farm. At "Welford 
Park, about twenty-two miles ride from the city, 
Mr. Laurence Nathan has started this affair at a great 
expense, which I hope he will recoup. It is one of the 
most interesting sights in the world to see the young 
ostriches, hatched by an incubator, issue from the egg 
as large as Cochin China fowls, and immediately start 
devouring voraciously the chopped lucerne which is 
provided for them. Each male bird has two hen birds 
in his enclosure and has to be approached with great 
caution. I am reminded of an amusing exercise a 
Balclutha schoolboy wrote upon the ostrich, while 
object lessons on cork and on water were floating in 
his mind. 

" Dear Sir, I take up my pen to let you know what I know 
about an ostrich. An ostrich is the biggest bird in the world. It 
is opaque and boyant, and lives in the desert of araba and africa, it 
is of the camel class because it has a long neck. An ostrich has 
three feathers, which the Prince of Wales says is ' I serve.' It 
has three states sold liquid and gas. They have two toes on each 
foot. An ostrich lays ten eggs at a time, and the mail bird helps 
the hot sand to catch them. They are very fast runners and they 
would never manage to catch them if the horses did not run very 
fast in a zig-zag style like a Z. It pays well if you can catch a 
good lot of birds, and the Hawklanders are trying to rear ostriches 
in that province, because they can't grow oats there, and the 
Maories eat their sheep." 

Sunday is decorously observed, now that Sunday closure 
of the hotels, except to bona-fide travellers, is strictly 
enforced by the licensing committees. Not being a total 
abstainer I am the more free to say that a great change 
for the better in the state of the streets at night and 
on Sundays has resulted from the week-day closing at 
10 P.M. and the Sunday closing. Taking the colony as 
a whole, the cause of teetotalism is gaining ground. This 
is largely owing to the eloquence, energy, and organising 
power of my friend Sir William Fox, K.C.M.G., who is 
president of the United Kingdom Alliance for New 
Zealand. 

Auckland is the centre of the educational system of 
the Province, comprising free Primary Schools, at which 



AUCKLAND, THE NAPLES OF NEW ZEALAND. 71 

21,000 children were attending in 1887, secondary 
schools, the High Schools, Auckland College and 
Grammar School, and others, and the Auckland Uni- 
versity College, founded in 1883, which has proved very 
successful. An account of these institutions is reserved 
for the section Education in chapter ix. 

The city of Auckland is well provided with table 
luxuries at moderate prices. Not only are there thirty- 
three kinds of edible native fishes in the sea, the prin- 
cipal of which in the North are schnapper, kahawai, 
mullet, flounder, garfish, and cod; also small oysters 
of delicious flavour, crabs, lobsters, and crayfish, but 
California salmon comes in, preserved in ice, by the mail 
steamers ; turbot and sole from England, and turtle 
from the South Pacific. 

The Acclimatization Society of Auckland has done 
noble work in importing game and song-birds, but all 
its preserving efforts to naturalise the trout and salmon- 
trout in the province have failed. The warmth of the 
climate, the absence of both ground-food and flies 
similar to those of Britain, and the voracity of the eels 
and crayfish (Koura), which devour the young fry, are 
thought to be the causes of this failure. In the 
Wellington district, along the Wairarapa valley, how- 
ever, I understand that the trout are thriving. The 
license fees exacted by the Government for the privi- 
lege of shooting during the " open season " are wisely 
transferred to the exchequer of these Societies of 
which there is one in each Province who are thus 
enabled (being also assisted by subscriptions) to carry 
on their good work. In the country districts, hares, 
pheasants, the partridge, quail, snipe, plover, teal, and 
red grouse afford excellent sport, a fact which should be 
noted by my sporting readers. Whitebait is found in 
profusion in the Waikato river. In the lakes, rivers, 
and streams of the Middle Island acclimatization has 
been so successful that the angler can now catch trout 
of 15 or 20 Ibs., and salmon of 30 Ibs. weight in the 
Lakes of Otago, while perch, tench and carp, are also 
thriving in suitable places. When first colonized the 



72 NEW ZEALAND. 

lakes and rivers of New Zealand only produced eels, 
crayfish, and a few salmonoid fishes of little value. 
Unfortunately for the country, however, the sparrows, 
blackbirds, (Australian) minahs, rats, and rabbits have 
acclimatized only too well ! Stoats and weasels are 
now being imported to keep down the rabbits, but it is 
feared that the former will vary their rabbits' blood diet 
with the vital fluid of fowls and ducks. 

Much more in fact, an interesting little book might 
be written about Auckland, but I must refrain. Enough 
has been described to convey to the English reader the 
great vigour, activity, resources, and advanced position 
of this flourishing city. I will conclude by simply 
enumerating some of the improvements and additions 
to the city made since the beginning of 1880, and 
included within the nine years of my residence. In 
some of these I was privileged to take a share.: The 
harbour greatly improved by the lengthening of Queen's 
Wharf ; the construction of two new wharves ; the im- 
portation of a powerful steam dredge, and the addition 
of several new " tees ; " a complete system of harbour 
defences constructed ; a submarine cable laid to Tiri-tiri ; 
the immense Calliope Dock opened ; the New Zealand 
Sugar Company's great refinery, wharf, and workmen's 
village built at Chelsea ; near the water-front the 
Sailors' Home, Harbour Offices, Palmerston Buildings, 
railway station, and Firth's Eight Hours' Mill, lit 
up by electricity; in the city the Free Library and 
Art Gallery, Abbott's Opera House; Young Men's 
Christian Association Building, Baptist Tabernacle, 
St. Sepulchre's and St. Benedict's churches, eight 
large hotels, the Victoria Arcade, Australian Mutual 
Provident Building ; New Savings Bank Building ; 
Turkish baths, Auckland College and Grammar School, 
Boys' Training Home ; new wing to Lunatic Asylum, 
two new reservoirs, Star printing-offices, many large 
warehouses, shops, and private residences. Tram-cars 
have been introduced ; the side walks have been asphalted 
under the reign of Mayor Waddel, and the following 
societies and clubs established : the Benevolent Society, 



AUCKLAND, THE NAPLES OF NEW ZEALAND. 73 

Christian Evidence Society, Sailors' Eest, Boys' Eest, 
Athenaeum, Field Naturalists' Club, Sketching Club, 
Amateur Photographic Club, Amateur Opera Club, and 
others. " If a more general knowledge," says Mr. Consul 
Griffin, of the United States, " prevailed abroad in re- 
gard to the genial climate of Auckland, I am sure that 
a large migration hitherward would be the result ; and 
I have not the slightest hesitation in saying that, as a 
site for extensive commerce, she stands the Peerless 
Queen of the Pacific." 



74 NEW ZEALAND. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE MINEKAL SPKINGS OF NEW ZEALAND. 

New Zealand first, Continent second, California third as to import- 
ance of their mineral springs Seventy-three already analyzed 
Arranged in five classes Three well-established spas : Waiwera, 
Te Aroha, Rotorua The new town of Eotorua Arrangements 
for visitors Mineral springs and baths described Priest's Bath 
Madame Rachel Blue Bath Pain-killer Lake House baths 
Oil bath Wonders of Tikitere Te Kute Hot waterfall 
Diseases successfully treated by these baths Leprosy probably 
curable by them The season for Rotorua Advice to invalids 
" Business first, pleasure afterwards " Diet, &c. 

No inhabited country in the world possesses mineral 
waters in greater number, variety, and medicinal value 
than New Zealand. Writing with a pretty extensive 
experience of such springs in three quarters of the 
globe, I am of opinion that New Zealand ranks first as 
regards these advantages ; next in value comes the 
central part of the continent of Europe ; and thirdly, 
California. In some places in New Zealand thermal 
springs are the sole remains of past subterranean 
energy, while in others, as at White Island (Bay of 
Plenty), they exist side by side with tremendously 
active volcanic forces. With a few exceptions, the hot 
springs are confined to those districts of the North 
Island where volcanic forces have been active during 
the latest Tertiary period ; but some are found to issue 
from the Upper Mesozoic rocks in localities such as 
the East Cape, where the source of heat can only be 
attributed to the chemical decomposition of bitumen 
and bituminous shales, and of sulphides. Three warm 
springs (90 to 104) have been found also in Pakeozoic 
rock formation in the Middle Island. 

During the last few years travellers and invalids 
from different parts of the world have been attracted to 



THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND. 75 

these springs in increasing numbers, so that recently 
the New Zealand Government have officially recognized 
their benefit to the colony by establishing in the centre 
of the Hot Lake district a sanitorium with a competent 
medical officer at the head of it. Eotorua having been 
thus favoured, Te Aroha is claiming a similar recogni- 
tion, and will no doubt soon obtain it. This chapter 
is the first attempt yet made by a medical man to 
group together all the well-proved mineral springs of 
New Zealand, and to contrast or compare them with 
those of Europe, in such a way as to inform the general 
reader, without confusing him by chemical technicalities, 
and the medical reader without useless vagueness of 
statement as to their nature and value. As no less 
than seventy-three of these springs have been already 
analyzed, it is important that English medical men 
who recommend invalids to go to New Zealand should 
have some definite information of this kind. The 
excellent pamphlets of Drs. T. Hope Lewis and Ginders 
are not circulated at Home, nor are they sufficiently 
elaborate to base many recommendations upon. 

Before giving a detailed account of the most im- 
portant groups of these springs in the order of 
medicinal value, I must remind readers that, first, the 
constituents of a thermal spring do not remain con- 
stantly uniform, but vary within slight limits; and, 
second, that the temperatures of all thermal springs 
vary considerably at times, according to the direction 
of the wind, and are influenced by certain subterranean 
changes. Both these facts show the absolute necessity 
for frequent as. well as accurate observations and 
analyses of each mineral water. 

New Zealand contains hot sulphur springs of a kind 
not found elsewhere, except in the Yellowstone Park 
ill Wyoming, U.S., and silicious geysers not equalled 
anywhere in the world. It also has mineral waters 
of equal strength and of similar constituents to those 
of Vichy, Ems, Eachingen, Bilin, Aix-la-Chapelle, 
Pyrmont in Waldeck, Eaux Chaudes (Basses Pyrenees), 
Royat (Auvergne), Harrogate, and Strathpeffer in 



76 NEW ZEALAND, 

Scotland. This fact alone should be an inducement to 
many sufferers from chronic ailments (gout, rheumatism, 
gravel, skin diseases, syphilis, &c.), who remain still un- 
cured after trial of the spas in Europe to visit the colony 
and try what its springs will do for them. For I am 
sure that in this grand exhilarating climate the mineral 
waters best suited to his case will be found to do him 
more good than they would on the continent of Europe. 
Commencing with the feebler spring most resembling 
that European spa which had best suited him, the 
invalid will go on to one more powerful until he 
completes the course of treatment, about which he will 
find valuable suggestions in this chapter. He will, of 
course, consult the resident medical man wherever 
there is one, at these thermal resorts. There are fewer 
potable mineral waters in New Zealand than in Europe, 
because of the widely pervading sulphides in their com- 
position, and the more recent character of the strata 
through which they emerge. From the analyses made 
in the colonial laboratory at Wellington by Mr. Skey 
and Sir James Hector, the mineral waters of New Zealand 
have been classified into the following five groups : 

1. Saline, containing chiefly chloride of sodium 
(common salt), for example, the Crow's Nest spring, 
Taupo ; the Onetapu spring, Mount Euapehu. 

2. Alkaline, containing carbonates and bi-carbonates 
of soda and potash, such as Waiwera, Puriri, Whangape. 

3. Alkaline-silicious, containing much silicic acid, 
but changing rapidly on exposure to the air, and 
becoming alkaline, such as the geysers at Whakare- 
warewa, Kuirau, Whangapipiro (Eotorua). 

4. Hepatic or sulphurous, the prominent character 
of which is the presence of sulphuretted hydrogen and 
sulphurous acid, such as Te Kute (Eotorua), and 
Otumahike (Taupo). 

5. Acidic, in which there is an excess of mineral 
acids, such as hydrochloric and sulphuric acids. 
Examples of these are found at Ohaeawai (Bay of 
Islands) and Sulphur Bay, Lake Eotorua. 

Iodine springs. It seems that out of the seventy- 



THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND. 77 

three mineral springs analysed up to 1886, only three 
contain iodine in appreciable quantities. In the Taupo 
district Tarawera Spring contains 0*7 of a grain per 
gallon, and Parkes's Spring contains one grain per 
gallon ; in the province of Wellington the cold spring 
of Pahua contains a little more than two grains per 
gallon. The Maoris distinguish the various forms of 
the hot springs as they appear on the surface by the 
terms puia, applied to all geysers ; nyawha to a hot 
steaming spring ; and waiariki to any pool of hot 
water or mud suitable for bathing. 

The principal chalybeate springs are those of Kamo, 
Akiteo No. 2 (Wellington), Amberley (Canterbury), 
and Chain Hills near Dunedin (Otago). 

Before describing the composition and uses of the 
mineral waters at our three principal spas Waiwera, 
Te Aroha, and Eotorua I will briefly describe a few iso- 
lated springs of peculiar properties which deserve notice. 

1. At Ohaeawai, near a small lake seventeen miles 
inland from the Bay of Islands (see map), is a group of 
springs which deposit sulphur, alum, and silica on cool- 
ing. The temperatures vary from 60 to 116 F., and 
there is along with the hot water a remarkable escape 
of mercurial vapours, which deposit cinnabar and me- 
tallic mercury. These springs are used as baths by the 
Maoris, and by a few Europeans, for diseases of the 
skin, and chronic rheumatism of syphilitic origin. I 
believe that Ohaeawai is unique in these characteristics. 

2. Puriri, ten miles from Grahamstown (Thames), 
near Auckland, is a cold effervescent spring, having 
valuable properties from the presence of a large per- 
centage of alkaline carbonates. It is bottled both as 
still and aerated soda-water, and has a reputation 
as an aperient and a preventive of gravel and gout. 
It would prove useful in " acid " dyspepsia. The 
famous Napa soda-water of California resembles this 
Puriri water when bottled. Its chief constituents, esti- 
mated in grains per gallon, are: chloride of sodium 
22, sulphate of potash 5, bi-carbonates of lime 28*5, of 
magnesia 25*6, of soda 452 3 grains. 



78 NEW ZEALAND. 

3. Onetapu Desert Spring, situated at the sources of 
the Waikato and Wangaehu rivers, in the vicinity of the 
still active volcano Ngauruhoe (7481 feet), and issuing 
from the base of the Monarch of the North Island, 
Euapehu (8878 feet), is so strongly charged with sul- 
phates of iron and alumina (58 grains per pint) as to 
taint the water of the river Wangaehu along its whole 
course to the sea, a distance of seventy miles. 

4. The cold spring of Pahua, in the province of Wel- 
lington, deserves mention on account of its iodine and of 
the large amount of its solid constituents, amounting to 
1474 grains in the gallon. The waters of this spring, 
though excessively salt in taste, will, in moderate 
doses, prove curative in chronic abscesses, swollen 
lymphatic glands, and other strumous or scrofulous 
affections. The aperient action will be limited and 
controlled by the lime salts (126 grains), while children 
suffering from rickets and deformities of the joints w r ill 
here find supplied to their blood plasma the elements 
in which it is deficient. 

5. The Hanmer Plain Springs at Amuri, in the Canter- 
bury district of the Middle Island, are alkaline, having 
temperatures ranging from 90 to 104, with a strong 
escape of sulphuretted hydrogen. They are suitable 
baths for cases of rheumatism and diseases of the skin. 
Being the only hot springs in the Middle Island, they 
deserve the special attention of those sufferers in the 
south of New Zealand to whom the journey to the Hot 
Lakes of the North Island would be too painful or too 
costly. 

The established spas of New Zealand, where proper 
hotel and bathing accommodation is provided for 
visitors, consist of three, which I will now describe in 
some detail : Waiwera, Te Aroha, and Eotorua. 

1. Waiwera. This charming health resort, situated 
twenty-six miles north of Auckland, on the east coast, 
opposite the Kawau Island, consists of a large hotel built 
by Mr. Eobert Graham about twenty years since at the 
mouth of the Waiwera river, and of an ever-flowing 
hot alkaline spring known to the natives from the 



THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND. 79 

earliest times. Mr. Graham laid out the estate on 
which the hotel is built with a taste, liberality of 
expenditure, and foresight always characteristic of him. 
All visitors from abroad are delighted with the scenery, 
the baths, the various recreations, and the table d'hote 
at Waiwera. To visit Auckland and leave it without 
seeing Waiwera, as many travellers do, is as great an 
omission as to visit Naples without seeing Capri, or 
Lisbon without spending a day at Cintra. A steamer 
leaves Auckland twice a week for Waiwera (four hours), 
and three times a week a coach leaves Devonport on 
the North Shore for the same place, doing the trip in 
about six hours. Until the jetty is built at Waiwera 
an invalid should go there by coach, but all who can 
endure a little inconvenience in the primitive mode of 
disembarkation should go by steamer. For the ex- 
quisite view of the little bay of Waiwera as the 
steamer Rose Casey rounds the last promontory and 
approaches the shore cannot be surpassed, particularly 
at sunset, for beautiful colouring, charm of contour, 
and rich foliage. The visitors receive on landing a 
cordial welcome from Miss Graham, the buxom hostess, 
who has the Queen's faculty of never forgetting the 
faces of those she has once met. A stranger is made 
to feel quickly at home, and I can say from experience 
that there is no resort anywhere near Auckland so 
refreshing and so restful to the jaded nerves of the 
overwrought merchant or professional man as this 
popular sanitorium. Boating, fishing, sea bathing, 
fern and flower gathering, picnics up the river, rides, 
walks, and lawn tennis, besides the amusement of 
bathing several times a day in the springs, enable a 
week or two to be passed most agreeably at Waiwera. 
In summer the richly stocked gardens yield the largest 
and longest supplies of strawberries that are supplied to 
any hotel in the colony. The curious plants, trees, and 
shrubs naturalized there by Mr. Graham are evidences 
of the mildness of the climate and richness of the soil. 
Every evening some social entertainment is promoted 
by Miss Graham, so that even in wet weather one can 



80 NEW ZEALAND. 

amuse oneself at Waiwera. Of all the visitors whom I 
met on my frequent visits there, the Australians were 
the most enthusiastic in their praises of this lovely 
spot, probably because they lack any such cool summer 
resort in their own country, for even the delicious air 
of the Blue Mountains, near Sydney, and the Alpine 
atmosphere of Mount Macedon in Victoria, are per- 
meated all day by the rays of a burning sun, which 
compel invalids to keep indoors during the noonday 
hours. But at Waiwera, fanned by the never-failing sea 
breezes, the most delicate visitor on the hottest day in 
summer may sit in comfort under the trees on the 
hillside, or in one of the numerous arbours which line 
the long walk to the baths in perfectly " cool, trans- 
lucent shade." So inspiring are the lovely scenes 
around Waiwera that even prosaic people rush into 
rhyme people who never committed poetry before ! 
Need I say that this is the favourite place for newly 
married Aucklanders to spend their honeymoon ? Yet, 
though " far from the busy hum of men," the telegraph 
and the daily mail keep Waiwera in touch of the 
outside world. Though the summer is considered the 
season, Waiwera affords a mild and well-sheltered 
winter residence. 

I must now describe the mineral waters. The 
temperature of the spring as it issues from the 
sand near high- water mark is 110, and that of the 
enclosed swimming bath is generally 100. At the 
end of a fagging day in town or of a very active day 
at Waiwera, a swim in this bath is a most luxurious 
sensation. In rheumatism, bronchitis, and bronchial 
catarrh these baths are useful, aided by the soothing 
effect of the sea air and the sheltered warmth of the 
place. Used as a drinking spring the Waiwera water 
is not disagreeable, resembling diluted Wiesbaden 
water. Being a light saline aperient and excitant 
of the kidneys, it may be used as a preventive of 
calculus, and to relieve acidity of the stomach. The 
principal mineral salts, in grains per gallon, are as 
follows : Chloride of sodium 116, bi-carbonate of soda 



THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND. 81 

87, carbonate of lime 10, silica 2, bi-carbonates of mag- 
nesia 95, and of iron 68, sulphate of soda 383. 
The water also contains small amounts of free carbonic 
acid and sulphuretted hydrogen gases. On the whole 
the waters are less energetic than those of Te Aroha. 
But even if the spring were to cease flowing the 
manifold attractions of Waiwera would be but im- 
perceptibly diminished. 

2. Te Aroha, 126 miles south-east from Auckland, and 
now the terminus of a railway which strikes off from the 
main Waikato line at Frankton junction, is rising into 
importance as a thermal resort. Nestling at the side of 
a spur from the great Te Aroha mountain (3000 feet), 
one of the highest of the Upper Thames range, and 
having the river Waihou meandering at its foot, Te 
Aroha presents some of the picturesque features of a 
Swiss Alpine town. There are two routes from Auck- 
land, one by steamer to Grahamstown, Thames river, 
eight hours ; thence by coach the following day to Te 
Aroha, six hours ; the other by rail in eight hours. 
Approaching Te Aroha by rail from the town of 
Morrinsville, and crossing the plains so well drained 
and cultivated by the Patetere Land Company, the scene 
reminded me of the view of Santa Barbara, California, 
as it lies at the base of the Coast Eange. Te Aroha has 
now a resident population, inclusive of the mining 
township, three miles south, of 1000. Hundreds of 
visitors in the summer season (November to March) 
find capital accommodation, suited to slender as well 
as large means, in the four hotels and three board- 
ing houses of the town. There are three places of wor- 
ship (all such are called " churches " in the colonies) ; 
a Public Hall, Free Library, boating establishment, the 
usual postal, telegraph, and banking offices ; and, now, 
well-fitted bathing arrangements. Horses for riding and 
driving are good, moderate in hire, and abundant. A 
favourite excursion, to the lovely glen of Waiorongomai, 
where the exquisite ferns, tree-ferns, creepers, forest 
trees, and the waterfalls are a never-failing joy to the 
visitor, and are not spoiled by the working of the mines 

G 



82 



NEW ZEALAND. 



above the hills. Another trip, very enjoyable to the 
active man or woman with sound lungs, is up to the 
summit of the Te Aroha mountain, by an easy track, 
whence a grand panorama, extending for 100 miles in 
every direction, is obtained. Besides all the islands in 
the Bay of Plenty (see map), including White Island, 
the Sulphur Volcano, one can see on a clear day the 
giant volcanoes Mount Euapehu, and Mount Tongariro, 
described in chapter vii. To those unable to make 
the complete ascent, a lower spur of the mountain, 
called " Bald Hill," affords a plateau whence the 
invalid may enjoy both a bracing air and a pleasing 
view. As a change from Waiwera, Te Aroha, while more 
bracing, is still calmative and tranquillizing to highly 
nervous persons. 

Eighteen springs, of which fifteen are hot, issue from 
the hillside overshadowing the town. All except two, 
Nos. 16 and 17 in the official list, published in Dr. 
Alfred Wright's " Medical Guide to Te Aroha," are 
alkaline, being heavily charged with bi-carbonate of 
soda ; and all the eighteen contain free carbonic acid gas 
in large quantities. Sir James Hector compares these 
springs to the waters of Vichy (France), Bilin (Bohemia), 
and Ems (Nassau). 

The analyses of the three principal springs, the 
temperatures of which, at their sources, range from 
105 to 119 F., are given by Mr. J. A. Pond (1885), 
Colonial Analyst for Auckland district, as follows, 
expressed in grains per gallon. 





No. L 
Bath. 


No. II. 
Ba'h. 


Cold 
Drinking 
Spring. 




Bi-carbonate of soda 


72S-73 


698-513 


682-123 




Carbonate of ammonia 


3-55 


112 


980 




Carbonate of iron 


04 


063 


042 


In addition to these con- 


Chloride of sodium 
Phosphate of soda 


73-514 
2-063 


72-072 
2 203 


77-748 
1-696 


stituents, there were " heavy 


Phosphate of alumina 


143 


023 


476 


traces " of carbonate of lithia, 


Sulphate of soda. 
,, potash 


27-546 
10-293 


28 Oj6 
9-800 


25-438 
10-794 


and of sulphuretted hydrogen. 


,, lime. 


2-989 


2.228 


2-989 


" The free carbonic acid gas 


magnesia 


378 
8'568 


336 
8-778 


602 
8-778 


was not estimated." 












Total solid matter. 


857-814 


822-184 


801-702 





THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND. 83 

A later analysis, given by Sir James Hector on the 
4th of January, 1887, which is too long and elaborate to 
quote here, exhibits a decrease in the amount of mineral 
constituents, but no decrease in the gases nor in the 
temperatures, thus illustrating the truth of the remark 
made (p. 75) upon the variations of thermal springs. 

Since 1884, an area of twenty acres, including all the 
eighteen springs, has been enclosed, and laid out as a 
garden, with walks, trees, lawns, seats, and bath-houses, 
(public and private), by the newly constituted Domain 
Board, but at the expense of the Government. The 
rapidly increasing popularity of the baths is shown by 
the fact that during 1886 thirty thousand bath tickets 
were issued. The baths have cured many cases of 
rheumatism, sciatica, lumbago, paralysis of a rheumatic 
or syphilitic nature, eczema, insomnia, Bright's disease, 
amenorrhcea, ophthalmia tarsi, and rheumatic- gouty 
contraction of the joints. Certain cases of asthma and 
chronic bronchitis have been benefitted by those baths 
that are richest in the evolution of sulphuretted 
hydrogen. Still further clinical experience of these 
springs will doubtless bring more diseases under their 
control. The cold drinking spring (No. 3) is excellent 
as a diuretic for gouty and obese persons with inactive 
livers. In healthy persons, as I found experimentally, 
it produces a vigorous action of the kidneys, and 
slight diarrhoea. This spring is so much in demand as 
a natural soda-water that a company has been formed 
to buy the right of bottling it at its source, and it is 
now largely used in the colony. 

3. Eotorua. A thoroughly inland alpine resort, at 
an-elevation of a thousand feet above sea level, forms a 
striking contrast to seaside places like Waiwera, and to 
the inland health resorts such as Te Aroha, which is 
only 130 feet above the sea. Rotorua is the highest 
place in New Zealand possessing thermal springs, and 
can boast of. the most powerful hot sulphur baths in the 
southern hemisphere. Lake Rotorua (see map 3), 
situated on a mountainous plateau about forty miles 
from the Bay of Plenty, is the largest lake but one 

G 2 



84 NEW ZEALAND. 

(Taupo) in the North Island, being six miles across, 
and about twenty miles in circumference. The lake is 
shallow, having an average depth of between twenty 
and thirty feet, and is considered by Dr. Hochstetter 
to have been formed by the subsidence of part of the 
ground forming the plateau, not to have been a 
volcanic crater. A conical hill 400 feet high, in the 
centre of the lake, forms the island called Mokoia. Of 
the mountains encircling the lake, Mount Ngongotaha 
(see chapter iii. for the pronunciation) towers up to a 
height of 2554 feet. I am thus particular in giving 
the elevation of this the highest mountain in the neigh- 
bourhood because the whole Eotorua district is liable to 
changes by upheaval and subsidence. Earthquakes are 
frequent ; and new hot springs gush out from the ground 
now and then, making great holes, and altering the 
water level in the lake, the height of which above the 
sea is usually 961 feet. The Government of New 
Zealand, following the wise example of the United 
States, have preserved the Eotorua district from land 
speculators by a special Act of Parliament, entitled 
"The Thermal Springs District Act, 1881." By this 
Act a large area of the Hot Lake country, containing all 
the important springs, is reserved for the Government 
to deal with. The Eotorua township of 600 acres was 
laid out on the southern shore of Eotorua close by the 
ancient Maori village of Ohinemutu, in square blocks. 
After making liberal provision for the hospital, bath- 
pavilion, church, school, cemetery, post-office, &c., all 
the allotments were put up to auction for lease of 
ninety-nine years for the Crown. All the " mineral 
waters, hot springs, and streams" are by this Act 
" vested in the Crown." The allotments were promptly 
bought up, and the town of Eotorua has steadily grown 
ever since, in spite of financial depression, and the 
large falling-off of visitors since the destruction of the 
terraces of Eotomahana in 1886. The real and perma- 
nent merit of the hot sulphur springs will always keep 
Eotorua going. There are already three excellent hotels 
and two or three boarding houses. An able medical 



THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND. 85 

man has been appointed as resident officer of the 
" Sanatorium," as the hospital and bath-pavilion to- 
gether are termed. A pure supply of drinking water is 
obtained from the Puarenga stream. 

The new town of Eotorua is reached by two routes 
from Auckland. The most direct route is by rail to 
Oxford, 133 miles ; next morning by coach from Oxford 
to Rotorua, thirty-four miles. In less than two years 
the railway will be continued right through to Rotorua. 
The other route is by sea from Auckland to Tauranga 
on the Bay of Plenty, 135 miles, and thence by coach 
early next morning via the Gorge Road, through a 
magnificent forest, for eighteen miles, and open country 
for twenty-four miles, to the township. Visitors from 
Wellington and the south generally take rail or steamer 
to Napier, whence they take coach to Taupo, ninety-six 
miles, spending one night on the way ; from Taupo 
they proceed to Rotorua, fifty-six miles, arriving on the 
evening of the third day. This is a romantic and varied 
journey, but only healthy and robust persons should take 
this route. The present arrangements of the journey 
via Oxford make it as easy for invalids as the nature of 
the country traversed can admit of. 

In this chapter I shall confine myself to the mineral 
springs and the climate, reserving for chapter vi. the 
description of the Geysers, Terraces, and other won- 
ders as I saw them before the eruption of Tarawera. The 
information given in the " Medical Guide to Rotorua," 
by T. Hope Lewis, Esq., M.R.C.S., the first resident 
medical superintendent, and in the pamphlet by his 
successor, Dr. A. Ginders, supplemented by my own per- 
sonal knowledge, and the accounts of numerous patients 
" at first hand," has enabled me to set before my readers 
the first succinct, complete, and systematized account of 
these famous sulphur springs that has yet appeared. 
The medical profession throughout Australasia hope that 
each resident medical officer will keep careful records 
of all cases under thermal treatment, so as toprecisionize, 
as years roll on, our knowledge of the specific qualities 
of each spring. Invalids " of weak chest " that is, those 



86 NEW ZEALAND. 

suffering from consumption, phthisical pneumonia, or 
pleurisy patients, in a word, who ought never to take 
a hot mineral bath should not visit Eotorua, even in 
" the season " from October till April. For they will 
not be able to breathe such rarefied air as one has at 
Davos or St. Moritz, the elevation not being great 
enough, and the summer weather being showery and 
stormy. From May till September, comprising 
" autumn " and winter, the rain keeps delicate people 
indoors, except during an " Indian summer " of about 
four weeks usually, when the clear sunny days and fine 
frosty nights form agreeable weather. On these nights 
the sight of the Southern Cross, the Argonaut, and the 
other southern constellations, and occasionally, though 
rarely, the Aurora Australis, is a grand spectacle. The 
elevation of the plateau is sufficiently great to relieve 
cases of pure asthma, bronchitic asthma, and a few cases 
of bronchitis contracted in smoky cities or at seaports. 
At Rotorua a south-west wind in the morning, and a 
north-east breeze in the afternoon (just what the tourist 
desires for a sail to Mokoia and back) indicate settled 
weather. Sometimes a north-easter blows for three 
days, with squalls of rain, but is followed by the south- 
west wind, with its characteristically clear sunshiny 
weather. It would be correct to say that, all over the 
North Island, a south wind brings with it clear weather 
and sensation of reinvigoration ; and the same is true 
of that part of Climatic Zone No. II. which lies in the 
Middle Island. 

There are in Eotorua township and its outlying settle- 
ments of Whakarewarewa, Te Koutu, Arikikapakapa, 
and Tikitere, examples of four out of the five classes 
into which New Zealand waters are divided (p. 76). I 
shall give the full analyses of the eight most important 
springs out of twenty that have been made by 
Mr. F. C. Skey, partly on the spot (this is important) 
and partly in Wellington. In the estimation of the 
volume of gases contained in the springs at their source, 
it is necessary to analyze them, at least roughly, near 
their sources. A careful though brief description, with- 



THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND. 87 

out analysis, of nine less important springs is added, 
and their special qualities in the treatment of disease. 
For still more precise directions to the invalids than 
I here give, readers are referred to the two useful 
works, by Drs. T. H. Lewis and Ginders, mentioned 
above, p. 75. The numbering of the springs described 
is that of Dr. Lewis's book, and not that of Sir James 
Hector's " Handbook of New Zealand " (Edinburgh, 
1886). 

In Rotorua Township. 

1. The Priest's Bath (Class V., Acidic) so called from 
Father Mahony, of Tauranga, a Eoman Catholic priest, 
who was the first white man to discover and be cured 
by its healing virtues. Its native name is Te Pupuni- 
tanga. It is aluminous and strongly acid. Temperature 
98 to 106, averaging 99 in the swimming bath. 

ANALYSIS OF THE PRIEST'S BATH. 

(In grains per gallon.) 

Sulphate of soda . . 19 '24 

alumina . . 21 '67 

lime . . 7 '41 Traces of sulphate of 

magnesia . 3 '03 potash were observed. 

iron . . 1'24 

Sulphuric acid . . . 22 '12 

Hydrochloric acid . . 3 65 

Silica 18-41 



Total solids . 96 ' 77 grains per gallon. 
Sulphuretted hydrogen . 2 '98 

Carbonic acid gas . . 2 16 

The first visible effect of a swim in this bath is a 
reddening of the skin, which, in sensitive persons, is 
followed by itching. Next ensues a stimulation of the 
liver, as shown by the flow of the bile, making an 
improvement in the excreta in patients suffering from 
sluggish liver and chronic jaundice. No very plethoric 
person, nor one suffering from organic disease of the 
heart or of the great arteries (such as aneurism), should 
bathe in this spring. The following complaints and 
diseases have been successfully treated by the Priest's 
Bath: gout, dyspepsia, sciatica, chronic rheumatism, 



88 



NEW ZEALAND. 



eczema (as a change from the baths), parasitic skin 
diseases, such as scabies and chloasma, obesity, inactive 
liver, abdominal congestion (piles, &c.), cold feet, anremia, 
chlorosis, and sexual impotence. As a rule the patient 
is cured by a course of thirty-six baths taken during a 
period of three weeks, intervals to be prescribed by the 
medical superintendent. In cases of obesity combined 
with piles, the course should begin with the Priest's 
Bath for three days, followed by three days of some 
alkaline bath ; then two days' rest, again the Priest's 
Bath for three days, and so on, for a period of four to 
six weeks, by the end of which the patient is completely 
restored to health. 

In some of its effects this spring resembles those of 
Eaux Bonnes and of Eaux Chaudes in the Basses 
Pyrenees. But the Priest's Bath excels these famous 
springs by the superior heat of its source, and by its 
richness in mineral constituents, containing three times 
the amount of those in Eaux Bonnes, and five times the 
quantity of those in Eaux Chaudes. 

2. Madame Eachel's Spring, or Whangapipiro, 
(Class III., Alkaline-silicious). Temperature 174 E. 
at its source. Reaction alkaline. 



ANALYSIS OF MADAME EACHEL'S BATH. 
(In grains per gallon.) 



Chloride of sodium 
potassium . 
lithium, traces 
Sulphate of soda . 
Silicate of soda 
lime 
magnesia . 
Iron and alumina oxides 
Silica . 



Carbonic acid gas . 



69-43 
3-41 

11-80 
18-21 
4-24 
1-09 
2-41 
5-87 

116-46 
3-79 



The exquisite softness of this water and the charac- 
teristic power which all the alkaline-silicious waters 
of Ilotorua possess of imparting a ^loss to the skin have 



THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND. 89 

led to its fanciful name. A swim in this bath gives the 
most luxurious sensation to the bather, and certainly 
improves the complexion, by some unexplained solvent 
action upon the epidermis. In gout, psoriasis, and 
ecthyma, and in the carbunculous tendency, this bath 
is most useful. Internally the water is drunk in cases 
of rheumatism, gout, and dyspepsia, with the beneficial 
effect of increasing the elimination of urea and uric 
acid. Silica and the silicates in combination probably 
exercise a similar action to that of lithia, an ingredient 
which gives Eoyat Spa in Auvergne the value it 
possesses in curing gout. The Maoris have for many 
years known the virtues of silicious mud used as a 
dressing in chronic and indolent ulcers. 

3. The Blue Bath, or Chamseleon Spring Oruawhata 
(Class I., Saline), resembles " Madame Rachel," but is 
more saline than silicious, and is used in rheumatic 
cases as a change from other springs. Its temperature 
is 140. The Government have constructed a capital 
swimming bath of concrete, 62 by 23 feet, with dressing- 
rooms on three sides ; the tank holding 32,000 gallons 
of the water. A peculiar feature here is the natural 
sulphurous vapour bath, supplied by the gas issuing 
from a cavity broken into during the excavations. The 
composition of the gas is (2 HS + S0 2 ). Both these 
springs have the property of encrusting with silica 
articles immersed in the water for a few weeks. Ferns, 
branches of trees, feathers, and birds' nests form beautiful 
specimens of incrustation. The water of Oruawhata 
cooled to 130 is an admirable means of destroying 
slugs, snails, and other enemies of plant life. 

4. The Laughing Gas or Cameron's Bath Kau- 
whanga (a). 

5. The Pain Killer Kauwhanga (6). 

6. The Coffee Pot Kauwhanga (c). 

These three springs are of similar constitution, and 
belong to Class IV., ' Hepatic ' or sulphurous waters. 
Each spring evolves a large amount of mixed gases, 
chiefly sulphuretted hydrogen and carbonic acid. The 
effect of the gas arising from the surface of No. 4 bath 



90 NEW ZEALAND. 

is so exciting and exhilarating as to give it the name it 
bears. The temperature is 108. Bathing in the spring 
itself is to be avoided, as fainting has been often caused 
by the gases breathed. 

The Pain Killer is safer and more useful than No. 4. 
It is one of the most valuable hepatic springs in 
Eotorua. It is fed by an intermittent geyser, which 
spouts up at a temperature of 214, and is cooled down 
by being led into a hole in the ground near the lake- 
margin. In this hole there is a large quantity of silicious 
mud, which is impregnated with the mineral constitu- 
ents of the geyser. The name of this bath is given it 
from its success in relieving gouty and rheumatic joints. 
It forms the best alternative with the Priest's Bath for 
cases of chronic gout. 

ANALYSIS OF THE PAIN-KILLER. 

(In grains par gallon.) 
Chloride of sodium 46 42 



potassium . 
calcium 
magnesium . 
iron and aluminium 



Sulphate of soda . 
Hydrochloric acid. 
Silica . 



1-71 
2-66 
1-47 
4-22 

29-14 
6-84 

18-02 



110-48 

Sulphuretted hydrogen . . . . 4 '84 

7. Stonewall Jackson or McHugh's Bath Hinemaru 
(Class III., Alkaline-siliceous), has a temperature of 
from 98 to 118 F. It is saline with silicates and has 
an alkaline reaction. As a bath it is efficient in 
removing skin diseases such as eczema, and as a 
drinking spring, when filtered, it is beneficial in cases of 
atonic dyspepsia, and in the uric acid diathesis. 

ANALYSIS OF STONEWALL JACKSON. 
(In grains per gallon.) 

Chloride of sodium .... 93'46 

potassium . . . . 4*69 
lithium, traces 

Sulphate of soda 2 '76 



THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND. 91 



Mono-silicate of sula 
Silicate of lime 

magnesia 
Iron and aluminium oxides 
Silica . 



In Ohinemutu. 



6-41 
2-89 
1-02 
2-10 
8-29 

121-62 



Nos. 8 and 9. The Lake House Hotel Baths. These 
two baths, of which (a) is clear and (6) is muddy, are 
called by the natives Waihunuhunukuri, the meaning 
of which is " water for scalding a dog." They belong 
to Class V., Acidic Waters, and have properties some- 
what similar to those of the Priest's Bath. As the 
muddy Waihunuhunukuri is ferruginous with excess of 
silica and without alum, and as it has proved especially 
useful in anaemia and chlorosis, I here give the chemical 
analysis. 

ANALYSIS OF LAKE HOUSE MUDDY BATH. 

(In grains per gallon.) 
Sulphate of soda . 22 -44 



potash 
lime . 
magnesia 
iron . 
Sulphuric acid 
Hydrochloric acid 
Silica . 



0-62 
9*81 

1-82 
12-66 
18-49 

7' 66 
18-06 

91-56 



The existence of so large a quantity of sulphate of 
iron and of the mineral acids necessitate the very 
careful and sparing use of this water when taken 
internally. 

Nos. 10 and 11 Waikite (a) and (fe), belonging 
to Class II., Alkaline, resemble in a general way 
Madame Rachel, being feebly saline, with silicates, and 
their reaction being alkaline when cool. The former 
is the bath reserved for Mrs. Morrison's hotel and the 
latter, known as Scott's bath, is in use at Kelly's hotel. 
These baths are useful for the same diseases in which 
Madame Rachel's bath is beneficial. 



92 



NEW ZEALAND. 



No. 12, Te Tapui, in the Te Koutu settlement, is an 
alkaline, highly silicated hot spring, usually 90 to 
100 F. in temperature, but rising to 180 when the wind 
is north or east. It is beneficial in psoriasis. 



In Whakarewarewa. 

No. 13. The Spout Bath Turikore (Class II. Alka- 
line), is a warm waterfall, a natural and powerful douche, 
which is admirable in muscular rheumatism, lumbar 
myalgia, and local palsy. There being no hotel, Maoris 
hire out their whares to invalids and engage themselves 
as nurses for those who need them. After using the 
hot douche of the waterfall one can swim in the warm 
pool below, and then finish up by a swim in the cold 
stream "Puarenga," into which the Turikore spring 
pours itself. But as active exercise in hot water is apt 
to make even a robust man feel faint, no invalid or 
tourist should attempt this programme without having 
a friend or attendant near him. 

ANALYSIS OF THE SPOUT BATH. 
(In grains per gallon.) 

Silicate of soda . 16 '32 

lime . 1'61 

magnesia 1'14 

iron . 0'39 

Sulphate of soda . 13 '47 

Chloride of potassium 1 ' 24. 

sodium 53 '61 

Phosphate of alumina, traces 

87-78 

No. 14. The Oil Bath Korotiotio (Class II., Alkaline), 
is so strongly alkaline as to have a slightly caustic 
effect on the skin. Hence its name from the peculiar 
smooth, soapy feeling it gives to a sensitive skin. The 
Maoris use it in washing clothes. Of course in any 
case their washing bill would not be very extensive ! 
Bathing in this spring is very sedative to the nerves. 
The geyser which feeds Korotiotio, having a tempera- 



THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND. 93 



ture of 214 F., has formed a curious mound of silicious 
rock, which is covered with beautiful sulphur crystals. 
It is particularly well adapted for treating skin diseases 
accompanied with nervous irritation. 



ANALYSIS OF THE OIL BATH. 
(In grains per gallon.) 

Mono-silicate of soda . 

lime 

magnesia 

iron 

Sulphate ot soda . 
Chloride of potassium . 



sodium 
Silica, free . 
Chloride of lithium 
alumina traces 



and phosphate of 



2-08 

3-16 

0-76 

0-85 

7-49 

1-46 

66-84 

22-40 



104-54 



At Tikitere. 



Nos. 18 and 19. The hot waterfall called " Te Mimi 
o te Kakahi," having a temperature of 90 to 112, and 
the Great Spring "Te Kute" are powerful hepatic 
waters belonging to Class IV. 

ANALYSIS OF TE KUTE. 
(In grains per gallon.) 

Sulphate of soda 12 '66 

alumina . . . . 11 '22 

potash . . . . 0'59 

lime 1-01 

magnesia . . . . 0'69 

iron 1-73 

Phosphoric acid traces 

Sulphuric acid, free . . . . 0-77 

Hydrochloric acid, free . . . . 1-63 

Sulphuretted hydiogen . . . . 5 '74 

Silica 12-40 

48-44 

In appearance Te Kute is a large furiously boiling 
pool, dull brown in colour, strongly odorous of sulphu- 
retted hydrogen, from which dense volumes of steam 



94 NEW ZEALAND. 

arise. The water is conducted by a small channel into 
a very primitive bath situated inside a small native 
whare of raupo, and is there reduced to a temperature 
which is safe and pleasant. Many remarkable cures of 
chronic muscular and articular rheumatism of many 
years' standing have been effected by this bath. Some 
parasitic diseases of the skin have been cured here in a 
short time. Dr. Ginders tells us of two cases of cure 
by this bath which it is desirable to note. First, a man 
from Tauranga, who had been reduced to a state of 
extreme prostration by a severe cervico-brachial neu- 
ralgia, which had for many months resisted all kinds of 
treatment, was cured here in a fortnight. Second, a man 
aged thirty-two, who had suffered for more than a year 
from paraplegia involving the .bladder (of syphilitic 
origin), was cured completely in fourteen days by 
spending three hours a day in the bath. 

The scenery of Tikitere, which is on the shores of the 
lake, twelve miles from Rotorua, is gloomy in the 
extreme; it is compared by most writers to Dante's 
Inferno. It is this characteristic, and the lack of all 
comfortable accommodation that keep the greater 
number of rheumatic sufferers away. But the tourist 
should visit Tikitere for its curious sights, sounds, and 
odours ; and, as a relief to his eye, afterwards explore 
the lovely Lake Eotokawau, on the plateau close by. 

To sum up, then, the diseases that experience has 
taught us thus far to have been unmistakably benefitted 
or cured by the thermal treatment at Eotorua are the 
following, though I cannot undertake to say that the list 
is a complete one : chronic rheumatism, muscular 
and articular ; rheumatic gout or rheumatoid arthritis ; 
sciatica ; lumbar myalgia ; various neuralgise ; dyspep- 
sia; obesity and piles; all the scaly, vesicular, and 
parasitic diseases of the skin ; some cases of chronic 
sore throat; amenorrhcea, dysmenorrhcea, anaemia, 
ovaritis, and sterility in women. As our exact know- 
ledge of these potent springs increases I have no doubt 
that many other derangements of health will in time 
be brought into their curative sphere. I even conceive 



TEE MINERAL SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND. 95 

it probable, from what I have seen of its early manifes- 
tations in Hawaii and in Norway (Trondhjem) that 
the most loathsome of all chronic diseases, LEPKOSY, 
might be arrested in its fatal course by the strongest of 
the acidic baths. 

A word or two may be addressed to my confreres in 
New Zealand or Australia as to the kinds of cases that 
should not be sent to Eotorua. Patients suffering from 
consumption (second or third stages); from chronic 
Bright' s disease; from spinal caries ; from myelitis; from 
cerebral softening ; and from organic heart disease, espe- 
cially mitral obstruction, should never be sent there by 
their medical attendants. A few useful specific direc- 
tions to invalids concerning the use of the baths may 
now be given, but not to interfere in the slightest 
degree with the more minute instruction that they are 
sure to get from the skilled balneologists at Eotorua and 
Te Aroha who conduct the courses of treatment. 

1st. For chronic rheumatism a course of from two to 
three months is usually sufficient to cure. Take two 
or three baths daily, beginning with the Priest's Bath. 
Once take a swim in the Blue Bath, and drink a 
tumblerful of Madame Eachel's Spring after each dip. 
After three weeks of the foregoing, resort to Whakare- 
warewa or Tikitere for the douches. 

2nd. Gout is admirably treated by the Eotorua 
Baths. Every day bathe twice in the Priest's Bath, 
and follow each bath by a pail douche of water 10 
lower than that of the bath. After two weeks or so 
use the Pain Killer Spring. For cases of gout, where 
there is a marked tendency to complication of internal 
organs, such as the heart, brain, stomach, or lungs, the 
thermal treatment is not suitable. 

3rd. If acute attacks of either rheumatism or gout 
occur during the course the baths must be at once 
suspended until they are quite gone. 

4th. For very obstinate cases of psoriasis or lepra a 
course of four and a half months' treatment is required, 
taking the following baths in succession: Turikore, 
Korotiotio, Te Tapui te Koutu, Hinernaru, and Whanga- 



96 NEW ZEALAND. 

pipiro.- In the middle of this course a break-off of a 
fortnight is often an advantage, the waters acting with 
greater vigour upon a renewal of the systematic bath- 
ing. It is often found in cases of chronic sciatica that 
though the pain has not completely left the patient at 
the conclusion of his prescribed course of baths, it leaves 
off entirely and permanently within a month after he 
reaches home. If an invalid's malady is not cured by 
the end of the month of April, and he finds himself 
overtaken at Eotorua by the winter rains, it is best for 
him to leave for Auckland, Tauranga, or Napier, where 
he may spend the winter in sheltered quarters and 
enjoy both town society and varied amusements. 

Dr. Lewis lays it down as an absolute rule that 
patients undergoing systematic thermal treatment 
must abstain from alcohol. Eegular exercise must be 
taken daily, but never to the extent of fatigue ; and the 
clothing must be carefully adjusted to the state of the 
weather. Dr. Ginders so pithily expresses one of the 
difficulties of the medical superintendent in turning 
out " neat cures " that I take the liberty of quoting it 
from his pamphlet. " Our visitors to Eotorua may be 
divided into three classes : the tourist, the invalid 
tourist, and the invalid. "With the invalid we know 
what we have to do ; with the tourist we have nothing 
to do ; but the invalid tourist is a decidedly unsatisfac- 
tory person. He expects to be able to exhaust his 
energies to any extent in sight-seeing, and yet to be 
cured of his ailment by taking a bath here and a bath 
there, as it happens to suit his convenience. He is 
generally disappointed, of course, and goes away to tell 
the world that the Hot Lake district of New Zealand 
is a much over-rated place. ' I have trjed it, sir, and 
I came away rather worse than better.' No doubt of it. 
My medical brethren should advise the invalid tourist 
to attend to business first and to take his pleasure 
afterwards." 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE WONDERLANDS OF NEW ZEALAND: EXCURSIONS TO 
THE HOT LAKES AND TO THE WEST COAST SOUNDS. 

Excursions to Rotorua, via, Tauranga in the summer of 1880-1 
Tauranga Oropi Gorge Eoad Beauty of the forest 
Ohiaeiiiutu Loafing natives Baths al fresco Wairoa Tiki- 
tapu bush Lake Tarawera White Terrace Geysers and 
mud fumaroles Pink Terrace Luxurious bathing lleturn 
down the swift hot creek of the Kaiwaka Fate of the extor- 

.. donate Tuhourangi Maoris Scenic attractions of the Middle 
Island Lakes, mountains, glaciers, fjords Lakes Wakatipu, Te 
Anau and Manapouri West Coast Sounds, thirteen in number 
Annual excursion by Union Company's s.s. Tarawera, Captain 
Sinclair My visit in January, 1884 Excellent arrangements 
Port Chalmers Preservation Inlet Cuttle Cove Dusky 
Sound and Mr. Doherty Spinach discovered by Cook in Dusky 
Sound Vancouver Entertainment by crew Wet Jacket Arm 
Hector's theory of the formation of these fjords Caswell Bay 
marble Milford Sound: its Narrows, Upper Bay; Mitre Peak, 
the glory of Milford Sound Bowen Falls Ascent of Mitre 
Peak Sutherland Fall, 1900 feet Reischek and his dog 
Return. 

HAVING in the previous chapter confined my description 
of the Hot Lake district to the mineral springs and 
their distinctive characteristics, I now propose, by the 
aid of my journal, to give my readers an idea of the 
original appearance of what has been aptly called " The 
Wonderland of New Zealand," namely, the White 
Terraces of Rotomahana, and the Plutonic manifestations 
in their neighbourhood now, alas ! no longer visible, 
having been destroyed by the catastrophe of June 10th, 
1886, chronicled in chapter vii. Just as the paintings 
of the lamented Terraces are enhanced in value now 
that they have ceased to exist, so I trust that a truthful 
and unexaggerated account of them by an eye-witness 

H 



98 NEW ZEALAND. 

may not be without interest or a certain historical value. 
The reader will bear in mind that in 1880, when my 
visit was made, there was no railway to Oxford ; the sea 
route from Auckland via Tauranga was the only way of 
reaching Rotorua ; the natives in that region were mostly 
demoralized loafers ; and the Government had not yet 
organized the township of Rotorua, the Sanatorium, 
the tenure of land, &c., which have now so civilized 
the Maoris, and improved the whole arrangements for 
the tourist and invalid. 

My friends Judge Maning (author of " Old New Zea- 
land"), Mr. S. Jackson, sen., of Auckland, and Mr. Robert 
Proude, of Razorback, Waikato, and I, started from Auck- 
land in the steamer Waitdki on a fine summer evening, 
December 20th, 1880, and reached Tauranga in time for 
breakfast the next day, December 21st, the longest day 
in those latitudes. In this sleepy little town, with its 
very pretty surroundings, we rested for a day, and 
engaged a coach and four horses, with relays provided, 
for the eight or ten days of our excursion. The 
expense amounted to only five shillings apiece per day, 
and we had much comfort and enjoyment in not being 
tied to particular routes, stages, or times. One of 
Kelly's employes, a merry, lively fellow, drove us skil- 
fully and amused us with local gossip. Starting, then, 
early on the morning of the 22nd December, we ascended 
to Oropi, ten miles from Tauranga, and 900 feet above 
the sea, which was at that time the extreme limit of 
cultivation in the direction of the Hot Lakes. " Oropi " 
is the Maori name for Europe. The views of the 
beautiful harbour of Tauranga, terminated seawards by 
the extinct crater-hill of Mangonui, made this, the first 
stage of our coach-journey, very interesting. Next we 
plunged into the Gorge Road, made after the fashion of 
a " corduroy road " in the United States, ti-tiQQ fascines, 
tree-fern stems, and wooden stakes being laid across 
the road on all the soft places. The bumps, thumps, 
and dislocatory jolts to which the traveller has to submit 
made this part of the journey "a terror." Since 1880 
another road, via Te Puke, has been cut, having fewer 



THE WONDERLANDS OF NEW ZEALAND. 99 

soft muddy places, so that there is less inconvenience. 
We joked each other about the roughness of the way, and 
the Judge especially chaffed me about the lomi-lomi of 
the Sandwich Islanders which I had been describing down 
in tranquil Tauranga. Eighteen miles of this became 
rather wearisome, but I was enchanted with the beauty 
of the rich and varied New Zealand " bush," as the forest 
is always called in the colonies, and thus my attention 
was diverted from the soreness of my bones ! I had 
been lately in Australia, where the forest is monotonous-, 
consisting principally of tree-ferns, blue-gum treesj 
wattles (acacia), with few shrubs and no creepers. The 
New Zealand trees are mostly evergreen; so are- the- 
shrubs which picturesquely fill in the lower spaces 
between the trunks ; and multitudinous graceful vines, 
plants, creepers, and parasitic vegetation delight the 
eye in luxuriant profusion. The " bush " in this colony 
is intermediate in variety, density, and brilliancy 
between those of Australia and the tropics. I should 
not rank it as equal to those I saw on the Isthmus of 
Panama or in Brazil. My friends, being all old settlers, 
named the various trees for me the nikau palm, with its 
edible pith, the cabbage tree, from which hats are made ; 
the totara, rimu, rata, birch, maitai, lance wood, rewa- 
rewa, potmtakawa all valuable building and furniture 
woods and the karakct, pulca-puka, tupakihi, and many 
other pretty shrubs. But no kauri was visible, for this, 
the most valuable tree in the colony, does not grow 
south of Mercury Bay. The only sounds in the forest 
were the occasional clear note of the tui, the chatter of 
the kaka, and the ory of the kalcapo, otherwise it struck 
me that the woods were singularly silent. A river ran 
along the gorge, but almost noiselessly, being contracted 
to its summer dimensions. In the evening we emerged 
on to the mountain plateau, at a point about fourteen 
miles distant from Ohinemutu, and we soon sighted 
Lake Eotorua and the clouds of steam from the geysers 
at Sulphur Point. The mountains round the lake, and 
the hilly island of Mokoia, diversified and filled in the 
scene. On arriving at Ohinemutu we were greeted by 

H 2 



100 NEW ZEALAND. 

the crowds of natives, men, women, and children, with 
begging requests in a manner reminding one of Killarney, 
only with more " cheek." -Finding the hotels very full, 
we divided, two going to Lake House Hotel and two to 
Morrison's, where we found the Maoris less noisy. It 
appeared, on inquiry, that, owing to the great difficulty 
of complying with the provisions of the Native Lands 
Courts, in order to obtain the signatures of every male 
member of a tribe or hapu (which is necessary for the 
ownership of any plot of land held as communal pro- 
perty), the man who builds or leases an hotel feels bound 
to give free liquor and tobacco to the natives when they 
demand it. If one refused, the court might turn him 
out of his holding. Violent scenes used to take place. 
In 1880 the Maori loafer of Ohinemutu was indeed a 
low and degraded creature a baser and coloured 
imitation of the low white man of whom there 
were dozens living there. A bad state of things : 
rather improved, however, when Mr. Froude visited 
Rotorua, and still more mitigated now, since the 
Thermal Springs Act of 1881 has been in working 
operation, and since there has been a modification in 
the Lands Courts' procedure. We, as visitors, were 
inundated with these beggar-Maoris, many of whom 
claimed the Judge as an old acquaintance. He was in 
the old times a powerful rangatira, or chief, among the 
natives, and we found him everywhere received with 
acclamation. I believe that this was Judge Mailing's 
first visit to the Hot Lakes. What we saw on this trip 
interested him as much as myself a "new chum." 
At Sulphur Point, where several hot springs are 
situated, it was an amusing sight to see native men, 
women, and children swimming about or standing up to 
the neck in hot water for hours, while close by Maori 
women were cooking their food in a spring (generally 
fish which they had caught close by in the lake), and at 
another spring other women were washing clothes. 
The stranger at first wonders how the Maoris stand 
both the heat and the acidity of the sulphur waters as 
they do ; for I tested a rivulet that ran into their 



THE WONDERLANDS OF NEW ZEALAND. 101 

bathing place and found that it blackened silver 
intensely in ten seconds, and that it had a very acid 
reaction. Testing eleven springs by my own thermo- 
meter, I found the temperatures to range from 83 to 
105 F. Our first excursion from Eotorua was to where 
the mud geysers and other hot springs are situated. 
The arrangements here for bathers are very primitive, 
the Maoris hiring out their grass and fern huts, called 
wkarcs, to invalids, and assisting those who need it in 
getting into and out of the baths. I noticed one terrific 
looking natural hot douche (noticed in chapter v., 
p. 92) which seemed powerful and hot enough to melt 
the spinal cord ! It seemed a favourite spot for 
rheumatic sufferers ; all whom I interrogated said they 
were steadily improving in health. The natives them- 
selves believe this hot waterfall will cure everything, 
even the scrofula, to which they are subject. An 
emaciated little Maori baby, suffering, I found, from 
tabes mesenterica, was brought to me for advice at this 
place. Having been thus detained and separated from 
the rest of the party, I sought a Maori guide, who 
uttered the strange phrase that I have quoted in 
chapter iii., p. 41, as a specimen of the native pronun- 
ciation of English. The enormous subterranean force 
in action at Whakarewarewa impressed our minds 
almost with terror, a feeling only relieved by the beauty 
of the coral-like fringes of silica and alum on the basins 
round the geysers, the quaintness of the cups, saucers, 
humps, and nests built up all around by the continual 
deposition of sediment, and by the mental satisfaction 
and gratitude we felt to the Almighty Power who had 
endowed those steaming waters with such beneficent 
qualities. 

Next day we had planned an excursion to the 
" Ellen's Isle " of Lake Kotorua, Mokoia, the scene of 
the romantic story of Hinemoa and Tutanekai, so 
prettily worked up in the poem " Eanolf and Amohia," 
by Alfred Domett ; but a storm on the lake prevented 
our starting. Judge Maning gave me his prose version 
of the Maori legend, just as he had heard it, hundreds 



102 NEW ZEALAND. 

of times, from the old men who make it their business 
to collect the traditions of the nation and store them 
in their memories. These Maori memories are truly 
wonderful, and have been recognised by the Native 
Lands Courts in the settlement of tribal and individual 
claims to property. I fear that the multiplication of 
books, newspapers, and periodical literature is destroying 
our memories in Western countries, by the phantasma- 
goria of mental objects flitting before them every day. 
" The daily perusal of a newspaper for three months," 
I heard Max Miiller once say, " will destroy the 
strongest memory." Yet what should we do without 
the daily enlightener ? There is no space here for this 
Hero and Leander-like tale, but should this little book 
ever see a second edition, I will add it to the Maori 
chapter, for it is a beautiful and characteristic story, 
and historically true. 

We next ' girded up our loins ' to the excursion of the 
tour a visit to Wairoa, Tarawera Lake, and the Pink 
and White Terraces of Eotomahana. Leaving our 
hotels early on a lovely summer morning, our coach 
accommodating, besides our /our selves, the two native 
women-guides, Kate and Sophia, we drove to Wairoa, 
eleven miles from Ohinemutu, full of health and 
spirits. The guides kept up a running fire of jokes 
in their own language with the Judge, who translated 
for us anything that was really spicy, and the scenery 
was most picturesque. Before arriving at Lake Tiki- 
tapu (see map 2) the water of which is of a deep blue 
colour, the road runs through the most exquisite piece 
of "bush" that I have seen in New Zealand. This, 
alas ! is now gone, perished in the. Tarawera eruption. 
After passing Lake Tikitapu, we reach Lake Eotokahi, 
the Green Lake, the colour of which, derived from 
copper and iron salts in solution, forms a most peculiar 
contrast to the former lake. At Wairoa we halted for 
the day at Macrae's Hotel, and explored the hills 
around. A very pretty cascade, the Wairoa Falls (a 
rather common name in the colony), is formed here by 
the stream that issues from Kotokakahi and falls into 



TEE WONDERLANDS OF NEW ZEALAND. 103 

Lake Tarawera, We visit the charming little ivy- 
covered mission chapel, from the trellised window of 
which one has the loveliest possible Alpine view of 
Tarawera, and the good Charles Albert Haszard, the 
devout teacher, minister, and friend of the natives, tells 
us all the traditions of the place, and gathers the 
children to sing some hymns. Could we have foreseen 
that in a few years this good man and more than half 
his amiable family would have been overwhelmed in 
the ruins of their own home, the chapel destroyed, and 
Wairoa blasted with sudden destruction, how sad would 
our parting have been ! I found that Mr. Haszard, with 
his wife and daughter (who happily survived the terrible 
10th of June, 1886), had thoroughly Christianized and 
teetotalized all the Maori children. The visits of 
tourists had demoralized the parents by treating to 
drink, but the children were safe. 

At 7 A.M. on a hot Christmas morning, this being the 
only day available for the guides, our party of four, with 
the two guides, six native boatmen, and Apero, their 
captain, proceeded in Indian file down the glen leading 
from Macrae's to the banks of Lake Tarawera. The 
track descends 200 feet in one mile, passing over 
diluvial pumice and sand, abounding in lumps of dark 
green obsidian (volcanic glass), of which I secured 
excellent specimens for my mineral cabinet. Though 
much chaffed about " picking up stones," I. always find 
that it adds much to the enjoyment and the enduring 
recollection of a trip through interesting places to 
bring away specimens illustrating some one of the 
natural sciences. My hobby is Mineralogy. Very 
soon we were comfortably seated in a large whaleboat, 
built by the Warbricks, who do a large business in this 
line on these lakes, and rowed along the southern 
shores of Lake Tarawera. 

This lake is the largest of this district, next to Eotorua, 
and reminds one of Loch Awe in Scotland. It is ten 
miles long by two broad, indented by several bays, and en- 
closed by stern-looking mountains. On its south-eastern 
side the lake has for its background a grand table-mouu- 



104 NEW ZEALAND. 

tain, Tarawera, whose three rounded peaks, Wahanga, 
Euawahia, and Tarawera, of an average height of 3650 
feet above the sea, formed the foci of the great eruption 
of 1886, described in chapter viii. Tarawera Lake has 
an elevation of 1037 feet above sea level, and receives 
the drainage of Lakes Eotomahana, Eotokakahi, and 
Eotomakiriri. Its waters are drained into the sea by 
the Eiver Tarawera, which debouches on the east coast 
of the Bay of Plenty at the port of Matata (map 3). 
In our strong and capacious boat we are quickly rowed 
along the southern shore for nine miles, passing half- 
way the Eock of the Taipo or Devil, on which Maori 
voyagers never fail to place a present or coin, to secure 
themselves against a tempest. Somehow or other we 
forgot to pay this customary tribute, and I hope our 
dusky friends noticed that no harm followed. Arriving 
at the Kaiwaka Creek, in the Bay of Te Ariki, a narrow 
swift stream of warm water which flows down for two 
miles from Eotomahana (The Hot Lake, " roto " always 
meaning " lake "), we disembark, leaving our wraps, &c., 
in a native " dug-out " canoe, and walk the distance up 
to the Lake of the Terraces, the far-famed Eotomahaua, 
through open country, covered with low scrub, con- 
sisting of ti-tree (manuka) and fern. At first sight 
Eotomahana appeared to be a small, tame and un- 
interesting mountain tarn of dull green water, fringed 
with sedges, rushes, and i-tree, and abounding in wild 
duck. No sign of human habitation anywhere. We 
enter a canoe kept for the purpose, and are paddled 
across to the White Terrace, the Maori name of which 
is Te Tarata. Here begin the marvels of the unassuming 
lakelet ; and our admiration goes on wescendo until, 
after a bath on the Pink Terrace, our vocabulary of 
wonder and delight is exhausted. 

Standing on the lake shore, at the foot of the White 
Terrace, we look up and behold a crescentic mass of white, 
coral-like platforms, piled up one upon another to the 
height of what would be eighty feet vertical, but that 
they gradually shelve backward and upward to the sum- 
mit, which is 300 yards from the water. The shelves 



THE WONDERLANDS OF NEW ZEALAND. 105 

thus formed are covered with basins and cups filled with 
warm water of a deep blue colour, perpetually rippling 
down from an unseen source above, over their edges, 
fringed witli innumerable stalactites into the lake at 
our feet. Gazing upwards we see at the top of the 
Terrace nothing but clouds of steam, and we hear 
bubbling, roaring, and booming noises, as of a huge 
cauldron of boiling water. Ascending slowly and 
cautiously, some of us in rubber shoes, some without 
because the water becomes hotter as we go higher we 
climb forty of these shelves, the lowest having a frontage 
of 300 yards to the lake. Mineralogically speaking, 
each shelf or terrace is formed of white silicious sinter, 
deposited by the gradually cooling hot water that flows 
down from above, the latest layers showing themselves 
as exquisitely delicate fretwork upon the surface, which 
it seems almost sacrilegious to crush beneath our tread. 
Having reached the summit (one of us with a scalded 
foot), we are startled to find the source of all this hot 
water to be an immense geyser, which shoots up into 
the air from the unknown depths of a vast cauldron 
of rock, upon the rim of which we are now standing. 
Twenty, thirty, forty, or even sixty feet into the air, 
at uncertain intervals, the geyser fountain plays ; its 
temperature of 210 to 214, rendering all near approach 
dangerous, and making an abrupt retreat into the scrub 
necessary whenever the wind blows the steam towards 
the spectator. By chemical analysis this geyser water 
contains : 

Chloride of sodium . . . .62 grs. per gallon. 
Silicate of soda . . . . 68 

Monosilicates of iron, lime, and magnesia 3 

Medicinally I thought this water would prove beneficial 
if taken internally in rickets and mollities ossium. Our 
party now turned and looked over the lake. With but 
a little knowledge of geology, a comprehensive glance 
around showed us the process of formation of this 
beautiful structure. Centuries ago a geyser of great 
force and volume, forced up by Plutonic fires below the 



106 NEW ZEALAND. 

earth's crust, burst out near the lake margin, through a 
hill formed of mixed clays and decomposed lava. After 
partly crumbling away the slope of the hill, it kept 
depositing on the ledges into which the ground was 
formed, by the water flowing over rock and soil of 
various resisting powers, the silicates which had been 
dissolved in its water under enormous subterranean 
pressure at a very high temperature thus building up 
the wondrous terraces, basins, and stalactites before us. 
What remains of the harder strata of the original hill is 
a nearly vertical wall of rock surrounding the geyser, 
except at one side. The day was warm and bright, 
with a pleasant breeze. What, I thought, is the much- 
praised Taj Mahal of Agra, and what are the most 
elaborately carved cathedral sculptures of the old 
country, all the work of man, beautiful though they 
are, compared to this lovely tracery sculptured by the 
Creator ! The sapphire blue of the water in the count- 
less cups and pools sparkling in the brilliant sunshine, 
and contrasting beautifully with the alabaster fretwork 
done in semi-transparent yet permanent stone, inimit- 
able by man ; the awe-inspiring geyser roaring above ; 
the dull green dismal lake below ; the barren hills 
around, desolate, treeless, and uninhabited ; the dusky 
aboriginals grouped around us ; heaven's azure expanse 
above us all these elements combined to produce a 
picture which even a skilful artist could bat inade- 
quately portray, and which my words can but feebly 
represent to those who have never been there. The 
scene impressed us all as something unique, not possible 
to be reproduced elsewhere in the world. 

Our party then, carefully guided, for the ground is 
thickly honeycombed by volcanic furnaroles, solfataras, 
and hot springs, explored the neighbourhood at the back 
and side of the Terrace. Two other large geysers, Te 
Hutu and Kakarike, we observed close by. The Devil's 
Blow Hole, whence steam issues with a terrific noise 
exactly like that of the escape pipe of a large steamer ; 
the green lake emitting an odour of rotten eggs ; the 
mud spring which the natives take internally as a cure 



THE WONDERLANDS OF NEW ZEALAND. 107 

for certain diseases ; the Alum Cave ; and many other 
wonders, exhibit the prodigal and varied energy of the 
kingdom of Pluto. 

After an excellent alfresco lunch, we embark in the 
canoe, and paddle across the lake to the Pink Terrace, 
called Otukapuarangi in Maori. Here a similar for- 
mation of sinter terraces has been going on for ages, 
but some coloration of a pink or coralline hue, due to 
iron in the soil it is thought, has modified the white in 
a very pretty manner. Some are of the opinion that 
the discoloration is the effect of a fire or series of fires 
among the i-tree, but in my opinion this is an 
erroneous, because an insufficient explanation. The 
summit geyser of the Pink Terrace is neither so hot as 
that of the White Terrace nor so violent in its action. 
The water, running more slowly down over the slope and 
containing the large quantity of forty-three grains of free 
silica in the gallon, forms cups and basins more rapidly 
than in the case of the White Terrace, by depositing a 
transparent film, which soon hardens and turns white 
on exposure to the air. Objects placed in this or 
the other mineral water become very prettily encrusted 
with silica. Five of the upper steps of the Pink 
Terrace have deep basins filled with warm bluish water 
of a temperature varying from 80 to 100, forming 
most luxurious natural baths, which we enjoyed most 
thoroughly. The subaqueous deposit feels smooth and 
gelatinous to the skin, and the traveller feels so happy 
in his bath that, like the Lotophagi, he cares not how 
time flies. But time does fly (a way time has) ; 
the sun is declining, and after a shuddering inspection 
of an awful " lake burning with fire and brimstone " 
near by, a look at two other terraces whose geysers 
have subsided ; and at six other geysers that may form 
terraces, some day, we have reluctantly to leave this 
wonderland. The Kaiwaka Creek, bordered by boiling 
mud springs and steam jets, bears our narrow canoe 
swiftly down its warm stream to Lake Tarawera, where 
our trusty whale-boat awaits us. It is nearly dark 
when we leave the mouth of the creek for home. Cap- 



108 NEW ZEALAND. 

tain Apero and his oarsmen pull us along lustily, with 
many a native song and chorus, keeping admirable time, 
Kate and Sophia smoking their pipes in much good- 
hurnour, for they look upon Judge Maning as the great 
rangatira, whom it was a distinguished honour to 
conduct. We arrive at the Wairoa boat-house about 
10 P.M., tired, but none the worse for the dangers we 
had encountered, except our friend with the scalded foot, 
which speedily healed. 

At the time of our visit the Maori tribe who owned 
the Lake Eotomahana, the Terraces, and the Inferno 
near them had the sole monopoly of guiding the tourists ; 
hence it cost us 8 for the day's excursion. They also 
obliged any artist or photographer to pay at least 5 
down for the privilege of obtaining any picture or 
sketch of the ' show places.' Loud and frequent were 
the complaints of visitors, artists especially, of these 
extortions. But the terrible eruption of Tarawera 
swept the tribe away as well as the objects they so 
jealously guarded. 

Our subsequent adventures and experiences even at 
the tangi held at Te ISTgae, on the western shore of Lake 
Kotorua, described in chapter iii., were tame compared 
with the excursion to the Terraces. There linger in my 
memory an exquisite rosy twilight and gorgeously 
coloured sunset one evening at Tauranga, and the 
witty conversation of Judge Maning, who was a per- 
fect fountain of Maori lore, acute character-sketching, 
and amusing stories. In chapter vii. I shall point 
out to the reader the very numerous and striking 
curiosities of nature (especially the Wai-o-tapu Valley), 
that remain since the destruction of the Terraces. 

The West Coast Sounds. 

We now turn to the Middle Island in search of the 
picturesque and the wonderful. The tourist asks, 
" What is best worth seeing ? " I reply, " Whatever you 
miss, don't fail to visit the West Coast Sounds." If the 
North Island has volcanic scenery excelling Italy, the 



To fact pa^elOS 




London,; A./.mv <fc &. 



THE WONDERLANDS OF NEW ZEALAND. 109 

Middle Island has scenery surpassing in some features 
both Switzerland and Norway. Here we find mag- 
nificent gorges threaded by coach roads running along 
the edge of giddy precipices ; grand forests, differing 
from those of the warmer North Island; roaring 
torrents and waterfalls ; wide river beds, all but^dry in 
summer, but well filled with rushing water in winter ; 
lakes of great size, surrounded by snow-clad mountains 
as yet unsealed by man ; vast glaciers, to which those of 
Norway are but small ; and the most magnificent fjords 
in the world. 

It is to these last that I wish to draw attention, as I 
visited them in January, 1884, and as the Union Steam- 
ship Company of New Zealand makes them accessible 
once a year in a most convenient and enjoyable manner. 
Here, then, is a sphere of exploration for the Alpine 
Clufy-to ascend Mount Cook (12,379 feet), as was done 
by the Kev. W. S. Green in 1882; Mount Aspiring; 
Mount Earnslaw, and other " virgin " peaks; and to open 
up tracks overland to the heads of Milford, George, and 
Doubtful Sounds, from the heads of Lakes Wakatipu, 
Te Anau, and Manapouri respectively. What keep 
away the mass of tourists from these Sounds are the 
stormy seas outside them and the limitation of the two 
fixed excursions in summer (in January usually), when 
only it is possible to visit them in a large steamer, at 
leisure. Among passengers by sea in general, the writer, 
who has traversed 50,000 miles of ocean since 1869, has 
found only a small proportion able to preserve their 
equanimity in rough weather ; and " the long wash of 
Australasian seas " that beats upon the hundred miles 
of rocky coast which is indented by the thirteen Sounds 
is always turbulent. The only chance, other than the 
annual excursion by the Union Company's Steamship 
Tarawera, of visiting them, is when the regular 
steamer from the Bluff to Melbourne, or vice .versa, calls 
in at Milford Sound. There is no natural harbour 
on the west coast from Milford Sound northwards 
to Nelson. The Tarawera, a steamer of 2000 tons, 
commanded by Captain Sinclair, is selected for this 



110 NEW ZEALAND. 

special cruise ; and the tempting programme drawn up 
by the Union Steamship Company for the ten days' trip 
is strictly carried out, weather permitting. Now that 
the trip has become a regular institution, there are so 
many travellers anxious to go that not only does the 
Tarawera make two successive trips to the Sounds 
the second one commencing the day after she reaches 
home from the first but scores even are shut out of both 
trips for want of room. The fare for the round trip is 
12 from Port Chalmers, or 10 in addition to the 
ordinary saloon fare to Port Chalmers from any other 
New Zealand port. I should advise travellers visiting 
New Zealand to secure their berths for this trip in 
November, for the exact date of starting is usually fixed 
by that time. The very courteous manager of the 
company, Mr. James Mills, will, if requested, give an 
organized party state-rooms all on one side of the vessel, 
so that they may all take their meals together. There 
are so many passengers that the meals have to be doubled, 
passengers on the port side taking the first breakfast, 
those on the starboard the second, and so on throughout 
the day. Every detail conducive to the comfort and 
happiness of the passengers is studied by the manager. 
The table (always good on the Union Company's line) 
is extra well supplied ; a double number of stewards is 
provided ; the crew are men selected for good conduct 
and musical or mimetic talent; there are plenty of 
boats taken for fishing, excursions, &c. ; a photographer 
and professional pianist accompany the party, and even 
a carpenter is taken along to make boxes for the ferns 
and plants the ladies may collect. For my own part I 
never enjoyed a sea picnic more thoroughly, and the 
fellow-passengers whom I met in after years had the 
same feeling. Any New Zealander or Australian who 
has not " done the Sounds," should lose no time in 
securing a berth in the good ship Taraivera when next 
summer comes round. He will enjoy the most mag- 
nificent and stupendous marine scenery south of the line 
amongst pleasant and hearty company. 

Leaving Port Chalmers on Wednesday, the 9th of 



THE WONDERLANDS OF NEW ZEALAND. Ill 

January, 1884, with 110 saloon passengers and Captain 
Cameron as general director of the excursion, the 
Tarawera made direct for the nearest sound, called 
" Preservation Inlet " by Captain Cook, who in 1773 
discovered and named these fjords. We reached the 
inlet at 4 P.M. on Thursday, the 10th, so that we were 
not many hours on the ocean ; but several unfortunates 
were forced to " seek the seclusion that a cabin grants." 
The weather was fine in this fjord, and the sea-sick 
passengers emerged on deck like rabbits from their 
burrows, or like the prisoners in the opera Fidelio 
glad indeed to breathe the fresh air, and to drink in 
with their eyes the exquisite beauty of this, the tamest 
of the sounds. Forest-clad-hills all round us ; shrub- 
covered islets ; snowy peaks in the distance ; numerous 
waterfalls, the plash of whose waters alone broke the 
calm almost oppressive silence ; these were the features 
that attracted and charmed us, so that all sea-sickness 
was forgotten. After steaming for some distance up the 
fjord, the Tarawera returned to Cuttle Cove to anchor 
for the night. Boats, of which there were eight pro- 
vided, were got out, and fishing commenced. And what 
a variety we hauled up ! butterfish, blue-rock, and 
red-cod, barra-couta, gropers, sea perch, trumpeters, 
dog-fish, and sharks, besides others. The sharks were 
certainly a great nuisance, carrying away lines and bait, 
but when caught, killed, and cut open were interesting. 
In the shallower parts of the sounds we found cray- 
fish, which are caught by spearing, and proved to be 
capital eating. Throughout the trip it is the practice of 
Captain Sinclair to enter a sound by daylight, and 
anchor at night in the next sound further on. All the 
intricate navigation is done by daylight, there being 
only one lighthouse (Puysegur Point) for 400 miles 
along the coast. This course just harmonized with the 
comfort of the passengers. My fellow-passengers proved 
to be a thoroughly agreeable set, ready to display their 
musical and other talents for the benefit of all. 
Mr. A. J. Towsey, of Dunedin, a professor of music, 
skilfully evoked and regulated these talents at the piano 



112 NEW ZEALAND. 

and organ. And the first evening, usually dull on 
board ships, was spent as musically and socially as if 
we had organized an evening party. By 11 P.M. the 
order " lights out " was given. What a blessing that 
electric fight is on board ship! No heat, no con- 
sumption of the air, a soft and clear light, and it can be 
turned on as well as turned off. At 6 A.M. next day 
" all hands " turned up on deck for fresh enjoyment. 
"We made out the peaks round us by the map : Treble 
Mount, 3200 feet high; Forgotten Peak,. 3682 feet'; 
Needle Peak, 4120 feet, these being suitable introduc- 
tions to the giant mountains we saw further north. It 
is interesting to note that as the traveller proceeds 
northward from Preservation Inlet and Long Sound, 
the character of each fjord becomes grander, and the 
surrounding mountains loftier, till the grandest of all is 
reached Milford Sound. But to resume our voyage. 
The next day, Friday, January the llth, we spent at 
Cuttle Cove, fishing, botanizing, exploring, and sketching, 
although the continuous rain was rather a damper on 
our energy. Those who landed found it hard work to 
penetrate the dense jungle of the forest, which reached 
from the tops of the mountains down to the water's 
edge, the feet sinking everywhere into decayed vegeta- 
tion, trunks of trees which had decayed where they fell, 
and spongy moss which had water underneath it. Our 
botanists had a good field for collecting orchids, rare 
ferns, the crimson-blossomed rata, the blue veronica, the 
snow-berry of a pink colour, and many other species of 
the Middle Island flora. In several I added to my 
collection of native woods sections of well-grown young 
trees such as the ti-tree, rata, rimu, birch, cedar, spider- 
wood, and others. The shell collectors were dis- 
appointed, there being no real sea-beach anywhere in 
the sound. The industrious photographer, Burton of 
Dunedin, " took shots,'.' as he called it, at the scenery 
whenever the rain permitted. He also took the 
passengers and crew in two groups, these forming very 
agreeable souvenirs of the trip. On Saturday, the 12th, 
the Taraivera weighed anchor at daylight and steamed 



THE WONDERLANDS OF NEW ZEALAND. 113 

out into the ocean, and round the lofty frowning cliffs 
the north of Ireland magnified sixty-fold into 
Dusky Sound, going slowly right up to the head of it. 
Here we left letters for Mr. Doherty, who with his mate 
lives in this solitary place. He is a good practical 
geologist and mineralogist, it being his business to 
examine the neighbourhood for valuable mineral 
deposits. He brought on board a large number of 
specimens of ore, chiefly copper, which he said were 
valuable. Though professing to like his isolated life 
amid Nature's wonders, he is not loth to visit Dunedin 
sometimes by our vessel. 

It was in Dusky Sound that Captain Cook, search- 
ing for herbs to relieve his men's scurvy, discovered 
spinach, that dainty and nutritious vegetable. Dusky 
Sound is twenty-two miles in length, and through 
it are scattered many picturesque wooded islands: 
Anchor, Petrel, Parrot, Pigeon, Seal, Indian, Useless, 
and Neman's Islands. In the hills, which rise so abruptly 
from the water's edge that there is no landing-place for 
boats anywhere, lithographic stone and asbestos have 
been discovered by Mr. Doherty. The characteristic 
feature of this Sound, we all thought, was the abundance 
of waterfalls, (all very full in January,) because of the 
melting of the snow on the mountain tops. From one 
point of our course we counted no less than eleven falls 
on one side of a certain mountain, and eighteen on the 
other side. Each of these falls was large enough to have 
made the fortune of a village in our own Lake country. 
As we turned along Acheron Passage, so named after 
the Admiralty surveying ship, H.M.S. Acheron, we 
were [reminded by passing Vancouvertown/ that the 
great Dutch navigator ran in here for shelter in his 
ship Discovery. How much New Zealand and the 
Australasian colonies owe to these heroes of the sea, not 
one of whom either owned personally or annexed for his 
nation the lands he discovered and named ! It may be 
some pleasure to their " shades " to know that their 
heroic names are stereotyped for ever on these islands 
and the island continent of Australia. 



114 NEW ZEALAND. 

On the evening of this day, Saturday, a lively 
entertainment was given by the musical part of the 
crew and officers to the passengers. The orchestra 
consisted of bones, tambourine, tin-whistle, accordion, 
and flute. One of the seamen, Woods by name, 
possessed one of the most delicious tenor voices I ever 
heard; he was vociferously encored every time he 
sung, but was so nervous that he forgot the words of 
his songs on two occasions. One of the musical 
officers was appropriately named Nightingale. Our 
evenings were all occupied in some fun or other. 
Among the 110 tourists there were eight of my own 
profession, twelve teachers of both sexes, but not a 
single parson ! We moved on during Saturday night 
to Breaksea Sound (see map 4), so as to spend the 
Sunday tranquilly in Wet Jacket Arm ; another be- 
fitting name conferred by Captain Cook, for it rained 
incessantly while we were there. The vegetation here 
is most luxuriant, and even in rain the scenery most 
lovely, reminding me of Lago Garda, in the Italian 
Switzerland. We had the episcopal Morning Service 
very well read by Mr. H. Worthington, of Auckland, 
the chants and hymns being also well rendered by an 
amateur choir of passengers, drilled by Mr. Towsey. 
In the afternoon and evening the American organ was 
kept going by hymns and sacred music. Wet Jacket 
Arm should always be included in a choice of photo- 
graphs of the sounds. Early on Monday morning we 
moved along Acheron Passage out into the open sea, 
retracing our route for a few miles; then, entering 
Doubtful Sound by its Bradshaw Arm about noon, we 
proceeded up Smith's Sound to Holla Island ; and 
returning by Thompson Sound to the open ocean, we 
entered Caswell Sound in the evening and anchored 
there for the night. Assuming Dr. Hector's theory to 
be correct, we can explain most of the appearances of 
these sounds, their shoreless margins, numerous islands 
all in deep water, luxuriant vegeta'tion, &c. He is 
of opinion that all the sounds were formed by a 
sudden sinking of the ivJiole south-west coast through 



THE WONDERLANDS OF NEW ZEALAND. 115 

some interior convulsion of nature. The adjacent hills 
had been much above their present apparent height, 
and the deep water of the sounds had then been 
represented only by small intervening valleys. After 
this convulsion the water from the ocean had rushed 
in, filling up the gaps between the hill slopes to their 
present sea level. Thus the shoreless islands now 
represent tops of submerged hills. 

The evening spent here, the anchorage being in Shoal 
Cove, was agreeably filled in by a concert given by the 
passengers to the officers and crew. During the night a 
thunderstorm came on, and Captain Sinclair for a time 
experienced some anxiety lest the Tarawera should drag 
her anchor and drift on the rocks, but the anchor held 
firm. Caswell Bay Marble is famous throughout New 
Zealand, but the comparative inaccessibility of the 
quarry, and the limited extent of the market, make it 
at present a profitless product. Next we entered 
George Sound, where the bush is richer than in any 
sound. I joined an exploring party, who traced up to 
its source in a small lake the river whose handsome 
cascade is quite a prominent feature in this beautiful 
fjord. The rain was here so heavy that we had to 
abandon our proposed regatta, although 15 had 
already been collected for prizes. Mountains of 5000 
feet now surround us, preparing us to some extent 
for the tremendous proportions of our next sound, 
the crown of them all, 

Milford Sound. 

We reached this, the final point of our excursion, at 
noon on the 16th of January, passing by Bligh Sound, 
and two other bays. In Bligh Sound Governor Bo wen 
was once detained by an accident to H.M.S. Clio for 
a fortnight during an official tour, and was released by 
the daring and successful journey made across the 
trackless mountains by Dr. Hector from Martin's Bay 
to Queenstown on Lake Wakatipu. On entering Mil- 
ford Sound we miss the forest-clad hills rising from 

I 2 



116 ' NEW ZEALAND. 

the water's edge to which we have been accustomed in 
other fjords. We pass from the ocean into Anita Bay, 
a gateway of lofty frowning rocks, 4500 feet high and 
proceed up the Narrows, a deep channel only 300 
yards wide, the sides of which tower up to 3000 or 
4000 feet. It seems as if the Titans had hewn a canal 
through the mountains. The glacial theory of the 
formation of the West Coast Sounds would seem to 
explain this and other features of Milford Sound more 
satisfactorily than the other plausible theory framed 
by Sir James Hector, mentioned on a previous page. 
When the Sound opens out into the upper bay the 
grandeur of the scene is indescribable. In front you 
have the (then) largest and highest known waterfall in 
the colony, the Bowen Fall, 540 feet in actual height. 
Its peculiarity consists in the fact of the river forming 
the cascade falling into a rocky recess forty feet below 
the ledge of the river bed, which has become so 
hollowed out in the course of centuries that it now 
causes the fall to rebound in a great arch, and to leap 
clear over the rocks 500 feet into the sound below. 
This magnificent fall has been named after Lady 
Bowen, the wife of the popular Governor above men- 
tioned. On approaching the fall in a boat the spray 
wetted our party while yet at a long distance from the 
fall. In 1888 the prestige of the Bowen Fall of being 
the highest in Austialasia was eclipsed by the dis- 
covery by Mr. Sutherland, the resident of " Milford 
City," of a fall 1900 feet high, near Lake Ada. far up 
in the Southern Alps. It has been named Sutherland 
Fall after its discoverer, and is higher than the Great 
Yosemite Fall by 500 feet. It is the highest known in 
the world with the exception of that fall in Norway, 
which is estimated at 2000 feet from the mountain 
ledge to the bottom of the valley. 

Let me now try to give the reader an idea of l.he pano- 
rama of this glorious upper bay. To the right, as one looks 
southward towers up Mount Kimberley, which Las the 
p-hape of a lion couchant ; and behind ii rises the far- 
famed Mitre Peak, 6500 feet high, the subject of so much 



THE WONDERLANDS OF NEW ZEALAND. 117 

artistic attention. Resembling in shape a bishop's mitre, 
this mountain, when the sunlight or evening glow gilds 
its twin peaks, surpasses in wondrous beauty Monte 
Rosa, the Matterhorn, or Mont Blanc. In the early 
morning of a calm day the outline of the upper part of 
Mitre Peak, Mount Kimberley being in front sloping 
to the water's edge, is mirrored in the deep brown 
waters of the sound ; and then is the time when the 
photographer's camera or the artist's brush can portray 
some of its beauty. But when a thunder-cloud settles 
on its head Mitre Peak is changed beyond recognition. 
An " instantaneous " photograph, representing a dense 
dark cloud settling on the mountain's brow, that I 
bought from Burton, makes the whole scene wonderfully 
like Vesuvius emitting its cloud of smoke. Friends, 
when looking over my alburn of views, invariably ask, 
" Which of the volcanoes is this ? " Mitre Peak was 
ascended in February, 1883, by two intrepid moun- 
taineers, D. Sutherland and S. H. Moreton. They 
report a good many difficulties, such as having to scale 
precipitous walls of granite, to cross glaciers, moraines, 
deep water-courses, and very rough rocky ground in 
general. The flora was of a distinctly Alpine character 
up to 5500 feet in altitude, and then vegetation ceased. 
From the summit there is the grandest possible view of 
the Southern Alps: Mount Cook, nearly 13,000 feet; 
Mount Aspiring, 9940 feet ; Mount Pembroke, 8710 feet ; 
Moreton Peak, Underwood Peak, and Mount Christina, 
each about 9000 feet; Mount Tetoku, nearly 10,000 
feet; and snow-fields with a glacier underneath 100 
miles in extent all these form a panorama which the 
Bernese Oberland may rival but cannot surpass. 
Neither the Svartisen nor Folgefond glaciers of Norway 
(the former of which I visited in August, 1889) are 
more than half the size of the immense Pembroke 
Glacier. All the scenery in Milford Sound is on such 
a gigantic scale, excelling even the best Norwegian 
fjords, except perhaps Geiranger Fjord, that one visit 
of so short a duration is not sufficient to realise its 
grandeur. From the deck of the Tarawera, which kept 



118 NEW ZEALAND. 

slowly moving round the bay, because there was no 
anchorage anywhere, the spectator could see eighteen 
waterfalls at one time; and as far as the eye could 
reach it ranged over torrents, scarped rocks, forests, 
valleys, snow-peaks, and glaciers. The more ad- 
venturous of our party longed to land and explore 
some of these romantic gorges, one of which formed by 
the Arthur Kiver leads up to Lake Ada. One in- 
teresting phenomenon I had never observed before in 
all my travels. An enormous quantity of fresh water 
from countless rivers and streamlets is continually 
poured into the head of the sound. The sea water, 
from its greater density, remains underneath this layer 
of fresh water, so that our screw propeller seemed to 
churn up the water into two colours, for it went deep 
enough to turn up the green sea water from below, 
which thus displaced and mixed with the dark-brown 
fresh water of the surface. The upper part of Milford 
Sound resembles the Yosernite Valley of California, as 
far as a fjord can resemble a valley. The little 
shanties, forming the pigmy village, which facetiously 
calls itself " Milford City," constitute a step from the 
sublime to the opposite. D. Sutherland, a native of 
Wick in Scotland, is a bit of a humourist, and trots 
out a Latin quotation now and then, as, for instance, on 
one hut we read, " Esperance Chalet, No. 1, Kennedy 
Street ; " on a second hut, " D. Sutherland, No. 1, Eotorua 
Street, 4 11 78 Semper Paratus." The double visit 
in summer of the Tarawera excursionists is the great 
event in the hermit's life. Both Doherty and Suther- 
land have the companionship of dogs endowed with 
an intelligence almost super-canine, reminding me of 
the accomplishments of " Caesar," the hunting New- 
foundland dog my friend A. Eeischek takes with him 
in his rambles. During many months of hardship and 
solitude in these Sounds " the world forgetting, by the 
world forgot " this naturalist, aided by his four-footed 
friend, has contributed more than any other scientist 
to our knowledge of the avifauna of New Zealand. 
Our captain, after only eight hours' stay amid these 



THE WONDEELANDS OF NEW ZEALAND. 119 

wonders ruthlessly carried us off as the shades of 
evening gathered round; and truly even a summer's 
day is short in Milford Sound, from the manner in 
which it is closely shut in by lofty mountains. Steam- 
ing carefully back to the open sea, after firing a cannon 
and awaking a thousand echoes, we steered direct to the 
Bluff Harbour to land some passengers who wished to 
explore Lake Wakatipu (the Windermere and Ullswater 
in one of the colony), and some who preferred taking 
rail to Dunedin to another night at sea. Next morn- 
ing we arrived safe at Port Chalmers as happy as 
possible, but loth to separate, as so many warm friend- 
ships had been formed on the voyage. 

I find I have not mentioned one little drawback to 
the comfort of tourists who land anywhere in the sounds, 
I mean the sand flies, whose bite is more tedious in its 
consequences than that of a mosquito. Travellers of 
both sexes should wear gloves and a veil while on 
shore ; if gloves cannot be obtained, the next best pro- 
tection is to rub kerosene on the skin. For the bite 
itself the best remedy is the tincture of a plant called 
the Ledum palustre. 

The wonderland of the Middle Island in which we 
find the best features of Switzerland, Norway, and the 
Tyrol combined is composed of these thirteen sounds, 
the Southern Alps, the Otago lakes, and the road from 
Bealey to Hokitika. 



120 NEW ZEALAND. 



CHAPTEK VII. 

THE VOLCANIC ERUPTION OF MOUNT TARAWERA. 

New Zealand a link in the chain of the Pacific Ocean volcanoes 
Principal volcanic eruptions from 1883 to 1886 Upheaval of 
North Island Great fissure in earth's crust, running north-east 
to south-west Taupo volcano zone Its craters and hot springs 
Premonitory signs of the Tarawera outbreak The eruption 
of June 10, 1886 Analysis of the ashes Results of the erup- 
tion Loss of life Death of C. Haszard, Edwin A. Bainbridge, 
and Tuhoto T. Minett's narrative The Wonderland that 
remains "Waio-tapu Valley New Sinter Terraces forming 
Pink Cauldron and Crow's Nest Geyser of Wairakei Mount 
Horo-Horo Lake Taupo The new grand tour : Te Aroha, 
Eotorua, Ruapehu National Park to the Upper Wanganui River. 

A COMPREHENSIVE glance at a physical map of the 
whole Pacific Ocean will show, if the volcanic regions 
be marked, that within its enormous expanse of seventy- 
two millions of square miles, and around it on north, east, 
and west, are numerous active and extinct volcanoes. 
And the history of this district during the last ten 
years affords examples of eruptions breaking out in 
new places on a gigantic scale. Of these outbreaks 
not the least formidable was the eruption of Tarawera, 
a mountain 3650 feet high, situated in the Hot Lake 
region of the North Island of New Zealand in S. lat. 
38 15', and E. long. 176, which took place on the 
10th of June, 1886, with the disastrous results of 
the loss of 111 lives ; the injury of the pasturage and 
agriculture over 500 square miles ; and the destruction 
of the most lovely ornaments of the land of Pounamou, 
(a Maori name of New Zealand), the White and Pink 
Terraces described in the previous chapter. Volcano- 
logists assert that in the Pacific Ocean and the coasts 




Longitude Ea st of Greemvi ch . 177 

L; S.Low & Co. 



ERUPTION OF MOUNT TARAWERA. 121 

of the continents bordering it there is an immense 
amount of subterranean and sub-aerial volcanic action 
always going on, which demands vents of sufficient 
number and magnitude to liberate its forces, and that 
a distinct connection or sequence can be traced between 
eruptions, whether accompanied by seismic disturbances 
or not, at places far distant from one another. An 
ordinary amount of subterranean energy may be set 
free at an old vent, a crater previously active, as in 
Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, Hawaii, and the Andes. 
But an unusual amount often breaks out in a new place, 
upheaving an island from the immensely deep ocean 
bottom, as at Tonga and White Island ; or changing 
completely the form and structure of a once active crater, 
as at Krakatoa, in the Straits of Sunda ; or, lastly, blow- 
ing out the side of a mountain, not a previously existing 
crater, blazing out through each of its three peaks, and 
permanently elevating them by 170 feet vertically as 
in the striking event, unique in both the history and 
tradition of the colony, which is the subject of this 
chapter. 

White Island, or Whakari, is a sulphur volcano, in 
the Bay of Plenty, twenty-eight miles off the shore near 
Tauranga, and is always active. It forms the eastern 
visible limit of that extensive belt of subterranean 
agitation which extends from White, Mayor, and 
Whale Islands through Eotorua and Taupo Lakes, 
across Mounts Euapehu (8878 feet), ISTgauruhoe (7481 
feet), still active, and Tongariro (6500 feet), to the 
Wairarapa Valley and the city of Wellington. The 
White Island crater is now in the solfatara state. It 
is important to note that the great eruption of 
Krakatoa whereby whole towns were destroyed, a 
mountain lowered, the navigation of the Straits of 
Sunda seriously impeded, and such an enormous and 
unprecedented mass of volcanic ejecta were blown into 
the air as to modify (in the opinion of many eminent 
scientists) the colour of the sunsets for many months 
all over the globe occurred August 27, 1883. On 
the next day, August 28th, the waters of Lake Taupo, 



122 NEW ZEALAND. 

fully 5000 miles distant, fell fully two feet in level, and 
rose again. Such a phenomenon had never occurred 
before, nor has it since. This recalls the fact that after 
the great Lisbon earthquake, in 1755, the waters of 
Lochs Lomond and Katrine in Scotland, and of the great 
lakes in America, rose and fell in a similar manner. 
It is not unscientific to believe that these phenomena 
were linked together. Now let us connect the preceding 
with the following facts. First, the Sunda or Krakatoa 
eruption in 1883. Second, the comparative quiescence 
of the largest volcano of the world, Kilauea, the crater 
of Mauna Loa, in Hawaii. Third, in the latter part of 
1885 the unusual energy of the White Island Sulphur 
volcano. Fourth, a return of great activity in Mauna 
Loa. Fifth, the sudden outbreak, in June, 1886, of a 
new volcano, Tarawera, in New Zealand. Sixth, the 
formation of a volcanic island by a submarine volcano 
that suddenly appeared on the 30th August, 1886, at 
Niuafu in the Tongan Islands, S. lat. 17. We 
may conclude that a subterranean and subaqueous 
wave passed along the fluid belt beneath the earth's 
crust and affected all these widely distant points with 
seismic and eruptive disturbances. A quiescence at one 
vent of volcanic energy is compensated for by increased 
activity at another focus. 

Undoubtedly the surface of the North Island of New 
Zealand has been upheaved by volcanic action in 
times not so very remote, from a geologist's point of 
view, that is to say, in the Eecent and Tertiary periods, 
to which belong the basaltic and rhyolitic rocks, which 
constitute at least one-third of the area of this island. 
Within ten miles of Auckland city Dr. Hochstetter 
counted no less than sixty-three extinct craters. I 
have studied with great interest the ridges and fields 
of solidified lava which in ages past flowed down from 
Mounts Eden, Albert, and Hobson, now forming the 
healthiest suburbs of Auckland. Often when driving 
over these lines of lava, the hollow rumbling sound 
made by the wheels of the carriage told of the large 
bubbles of air imprisoned by the rapidly cooling fluid 



ERUPTION OF MOUNT TAEAWERA. 123 

ages ago. As one would expect, these lava ridges 
make the roads so " hummocky " (to use a colonialism) 
as to be costly to maintain in order. On the island of 
Rangitoto we can study the latest forms of black lava 
and brecciated tufa. The accompanying map, drawn 
by Mr. S. Percy Smith, now Surveyor-General of New 
Zealand, to whose exhaustive and thoroughly scientific 
official report on the Tarawera eruption I am much 
indebted, displays the whole of the Taupo volcanic 
zone. This zone covers an area of 4725 square miles, 
over which none but volcanic rocks or their derivatives 
are to be found; and it includes all the late and 
present active manifestations of thermal and Plutonic 
energy, the hot springs and geysers being marked in 
red. The longer axis of this volcanic zone runs 
north-east to north-west, and nearly coincides, it is 
thought by Mr. Smith and other competent geologists, 
with a great fissure in the earth's crust from which in 
Eocene times the islands of New Zealand were thrown 
up so as to appear above the surface of the sea. This 
scientific theory is in curious agreement with the 
legend of the god Maui, and his fish, Te Ika o Maui, 
alluded to in chapter iii. The general direction of 
this deep-seated fissure is parallel to the chief mountain 
chains of both islands. As in Italy so in New 
Zealand, the more recent and still active volcanic 
energy is confined to the districts nearest the equator. 
In chapter ii. I have compared the district north of 
Auckland to southern Italy. 

The area of country covered with pumice mixed with 
a rusty-coloured arenaceous loam is about 10,775 square 
miles. The pumice varies from blocks containing 1000 
cubic feet down to grains the size of coarse sand. In 
the Auckland Museum is to be seen a series of speci- 
mens finely illustrating the transition of pumice-stone 
to obsidian, with which it is chemically identical. 
Changes of the surface are always going on in this 
volcanic zone ; chemical decompositions ; sub-aerial 
denudation ; the dissolution of soluble cjecta ; and the 
deposition of many substances (silica, lime salts, 



124 NEW ZEALAND. 

sulphur, alum, clay, &c.) by countless thermal springs. 
No less than six extinct volcanoes, namely Tongariro, 
Kakaramea, Pihanga, Tauhara, Mount Edgecumbe, and 
Mayor Island, containing among them twelve more or 
less perfect craters, and having hot springs close to 
their bases, exist within this Zone. This state of things 
shows that the volcanic forces are not really extinct ; 
they have simply changed the places and the character 
of their manifestations. We must not forget that 
volcanic energy is world- wide; for even in steady old 
Britain we have an earthquake now and then ; hot 
springs exist at Bath, Strathpeffer, and elsewhere ; while 
the Isle of Skye offers a most interesting field for the 
study of extinct volcanic phenomena. We now proceed 
to the detailed consideration of the eruption of Mount 
Tarawera on June 10, 1886. 

Mount Tarawera (3650 feet) on the shore of the lake 
of that name, resembled Table Mountain, Cape of Good 
Hope, when I saw it in 1880. It is wonderfully 
changed now. It is composed of rhyolitic and trachytic 
rocks, and is (Mr. Smith thinks), of igneous origin, but 
not an extinct volcano ; nor does it possess any trace of 
a crater. The three summits mentioned in chapter vi. 
are, in order, from north-east to north-west, Wahanga, 
Ruawahia, and Tarawera. So free was Tarawera from 
even the tradition of ever having been a source of erup- 
tion that the Maoris of the Arawa tribe had buried 
their chiefs there for centuries. The Maoris of the 
Tuhourangi tribe, the same who had monopolised the 
Terraces so covetously (see chapter vi.), had removed 
to a place called Te Ariki, on a little bay in Lake 
Tarawera, close to the mountain that broke out. These 
all perished to a man. An old chief, Eangiheua by 
name, with about a dozen of the Maoris of the 
Tuhourangi tribe, had encamped on two islets in Lake 
Eotomahana for the purposes of sanitary bathing ; and 
these shared the same fate. The total loss of life is 
reckoned at 111 lives six Whites and 105 Maoris. 



ERUPTION OF MOUNT TARAWERA. 125 



Premonitory Signs. 

June in this latitude corresponds to December in the 
northern hemisphere. The rains of winter had just 
begun to fall when the eruption took place, after a very 
dry summer. ]3ut the evening of the 9th of June was 
fine, permitting the visitors at Eotorua to see distinctly 
the occultation of Mars by the moon at 10.20 P.M. 
Most fortunate it was and a cause of deep thankfulness 
that the event I am about to chronicle took place in 
winter, when there are very few visitors to the lakes 
and Terraces, and before the establishment of an hotel 
on the shores of Lake Eotomahana, which was planned 
for the following summer season. The loss of life would 
then have been terrible, involving persons from all parts 
of the world, who in rapidly increasing numbers have 
been attracted to these beauties of nature. Various 
changes in the level of Lake Eotokakahi ; increased 
violence of the geysers of the White Terrace, of 
Wairakei, and of Toka-anu; together with the new 
phenomenon of steam issuing from the extinct crater of 
Mount Euapehu (the Mont lilanc of the North Island), 
had been noticed by competent observers. The last 
scientific visitor of note to the Terraces, Dr. T. S. Ealph, 
of Melbourne, on the 1st of June, describes a peculiar 
and unusual wave on Lake Tarawera, which caused a 
temporary rise of the water to the extent of one foot. 
The guide of his party, Sophia, was alarmed, stating that 
no such wave had been seen on the lake for fifteen 
years. There was no wind at the time. At the Pink 
Terrace it was noticed that there had been a very 
unusual ejection of mud from that geyser. It was on 
this 1st of June that the Maori boatmen started the 
story of the spectral canoe of ancient shape, filled by 
warriors of the Arawa tribe, which, they said, they saw 
crossing the Lake Tarawera. Mr. Edwin Bainbridge, 
one of the victims of the eruption, told Dr. Ealph that 
on the 1st of June, ab<mt the hour that the tidal wave 
had been seen, he was riding towards Wairoa, and 



126 NE W . ZEALAND. 

heard a report like the boom of a cannon. In view of 
subsequent events, it is concluded by scientists that this 
lake wave was due to an earthquake, or to a subsidence 
of the shore, marking perhaps the first significant 
fracture of the rock-masses superimposed on the im- 
prisoned steam, which shortly afterwards was to work 
such destruction. It is strange that the barometer 
(self-registering) at Eotorua showed no sign of atmo- 
spheric disturbance, either before, during, or after the 
eruption. 

The Eruption of Tarawera, 

About 1 A.M., on June the 10th, slight earthquake 
shocks were felt by the inhabitants of Wairoa, a village 
eight miles from and due west of Mount Tarawera and 
by those of Rotorua (eleven miles north-west of Wairoa), 
where the shakings were accompanied by rumbling 
noises. At 2 . 10 or 2.20 A.M. this rumbling noise had 
increased at Eotorua to a continuous and fearsome roar, 
and a rather heavy earthquake occurred, felt also at 
Whakarewarewa, Maketu, Opotiki, Oropi, and Tauranga. 
At the same time three enormous columns of fire and 
smoke were seen to rise from the flat summit of 
Tarawera and to shoot up into the air to an immense 
height. From this great cloud flashes of electricity and 
balls of fire darted in all directions, accompanied by 
loud crackling noises, such as are heard in auroral 
displays and in the discharges of the static electrical 
machines. Repeated and very loud claps of thunder 
were heard. Fireballs, that is, red hot lumps of scoria, 
and other stone, rolled down the sides of Tarawera or 
were projected into Wairoa, setting on fire some of the 
houses and huts. From 3 A.M. to 6 A.M., as the great 
black cloud worked its way towards the west, north, and 
south, showers of stone, of mud, and of rain over- 
whelmed Wairoa, Te Ariki, and the whole neighbour- 
hood of Tarawera and Rotomahana. From Rotomahana, 
shortly after the outbreak at Tarawera, rose a column 
of steam, with loud explosions at intervals, and 



ERUPTION OF MOUNT TAEAWERA. 127 

ejections of mud, sand, and ashes. In Auckland two 
loud explosions were heard at about 2 . 30 A.M., waking 
people from their slumbers, myself among the number. 
The detonations were interpreted by the morning paper 
to be the sounds of signal guns of distress fired by 
some large ship aground on the dangerous Manukau 
bar, but by 9 A.M. telegrams from Eotorua disclosed 
their real origin. These explosions were heard also 
at Hamilton, Cambridge, Te Aroha, New Plymouth, 
Helens ville, Whangarei, Waiapu, Taupo,and Wellington, 
in the North Island ; and at Nelson, Blenheim, and 
Christchurch, in the Middle Island. 

The earthquakes were felt at Te Aroha, Cambridge, 
Lichfield, Waiapu, Taupo, and other places in the North 
Island. At Eotorua they recurred every ten minutes 
or so during the 10th of June, and at frequent intervals 
for days afterwards. 

The flashes of electricity were distinctly seen at 
Auckland, 130 miles distant in a straight line. The 
vast cloud arising from the new volcano was highly 
charged with lightning, flashing and darting across and 
through it, sometimes shooting upwards in long 
streamers, at other downwards or horizontally, often 
ending in balls of fire, which burst into thousands of 
rocket-like stars. The immense cloud of ashes and 
dust shot up to an almost incredible height in the air, 
driven first by the south-easterly wind in a westerly 
direction, and then by the south-west wind towards the 
north and east. I saw it among hundreds of people at 
Auckland from the hill called Mount Victoria, North 
Shore, on the 12th of June, and its height was ascer- 
tained by surveyors to be 44,700 feet, or a little over 
eight miles above the sea level ! It quenched the bright 
moonlight on that fatal night, and darkened the sky 
until 11 A.M. over all the country around. Charged with 
ash, dust, sand, and small stones, it spread over 5700 
miles of land, dropping these as it went, places 160 
miles apart being covered with the material ; and it 
passed far out to sea also. The farms along the coast- 
line of the Bay of Plenty, from Tauranga to Opotiki, 



128 NEW ZEALAND. 

suffered heavily by the destruction of the grasses and 
vegetation, which caused the death of cattle and sheep 
from want of food, many of the settlers not having hay 
or the means to procure it. But the country was not 
permanently affected, for the rains of the winter washed 
the deposited dust into the soil, and it proved a 
fertilizer to the more barren places in the district, 
while somewhat deleterious to the fertile soils. This 
volcanic dust consisted, according to its proximity to or 
remoteness from the focus of the cloud, of the following 
ingredients: silica 66'5 to 55'7 ; alumina 14'5 to 13'8 ; 
iron oxides 4 to 8*3 ; lime 2*9 to 6'35 ; magnesia 1*60 
to 1'40. In addition there were, on testing it with 
dilute hydrochloric acid, the following substances : soda, 
potash, chlorine, phosphoric and sulphuric acids, and 
organic matter. 

Eesults of the Eruption. 

The eruption was practically all over in six hours as 
far as Tarawera Mountain was concerned. But the 
craters formed on the site of Eotomahana continued 
active until the 6th of August. The magnitude of the 
eruption must not be gauged by the time it lasted, for 
a marvellous amount of volcanic energy was compressed 
into a short space of time. The eruption-effects began 
to" be observed from the 13th of June onwards, for 
exploring parties started off promptly on hearing the 
news from Auckland, Napier, Taupo, and Cambridge. 

Mr. Percy Smith, on the part of the Government, 
reports in his official pamphlet 1st, that the eruption 
has formed a great fissure in the earth's crust (marked 
in red on map 3), nine miles long from north-east to 
south-west, of a mean width of a furlong, but at Eoto- 
mahana a mile and a half broad, 900 feet deep at the 
northern, and 300 feet deep at the southern end. 2nd, 
that Eotomahana has become a great crater of one 
and a half miles in diameter. This crater is encircled 
by precipitous walls from 200 to 300 feet high. Below 
the walls the ground slopes by ridges and hollows to 



ERUPTION OF MOUNT TARAWERA. 129 

the central cavity now filled by water, which is only 
565 feet above sea level, or 515 feet below the 
former level of Rotomahana Lake. In this large crater 
are geysers vomiting steam and mud. Its sides are 
branded with various colours, the yellow of the ferro- 
chlorides, and the white of the silicates and lime oxides 
predominating. 

Both Pink and White Terraces have disappeared so 
completely that even their sites can only be guessed at 
by the native and half-caste guides, who are so fami- 
liar with the locality. The conjecture, most probably 
accurate, judging from the fragments of white silicious 
sinter found scattered about the northern side of the 
Rotomahana crater, and the damming up of the Kai- 
waka creek to the depth of eighty feet, is that the Pink 
Terrace has been overwhelmed by a great mass of mud 
and stones, and that the White Terrace has been partly 
blown to pieces, and partly has been sunk down far 
below the ground. A great many cracks in the ground, 
varying from a few inches to forty feet wide, made by 
earthquakes, exist in this district. The general direction 
is parallel to the great fissure. The desolate hue of the 
whole district round where the bluish-grey mud still 
lingers can be better imagined than described ; but there 
is still much scenery of great interest for visitors to 
explore, as I shall describe later on. 

The ashes and mud that covered the country over so 
large an area (p. 127) have now been to a large extent 
carried off by the streams and rivers ; the river Tarawera 
(which before the eruption had perfectly clear water), 
ever since the eruption having had its stream made 
milky-white, and even whitening, the sea for a mile or 
two near its mouth (see Map 3), throughout the summer 
of 1886-7. The Government have made new roads, 
practicable for buggies and light carriages, nearly up to 
the edge of the great fissure, and to Wairoa, from which 
points one can plainly see the great gash, as it were, in 
the side of Tarawera. As the activity of the three 
craters of this mountain has now (July, 1889) ceased, 
Mr. Smith is of opinion that the eruption of June the 10th 

K 



130 NEW ZEALAND. 

1886, was an incomplete effort to form a permanently 
active volcano like Vesuvius or ^Etna, only the first 
stage of the formation being actually attained, further 
developments may be looked for ; and we in Auckland, 
being absolutely free from earthquakes, and from other 
manifestations of disturbance, ascribed our continued 
immunity to this safety-valve of Tarawera. The alarm 
felt for some months about the stability of Eotorua and 
Whakarewarewa, where the geysers have played more 
vigorously since the eruption, has passed away ; and, 
as the bath accommodation there is very much improved 
and enlarged, visitors and invalids have resumed coming 
in large numbers. 

TJie Loss of Life ~by the Eruption. 

Two native settlements, Te Moura and Te Ariki, were 
destroyed, and every life lost (including a white man), 
except one. At Wairoa several natives were killed by 
the falling stones, or smothered in their huts by the 
mud, scoria, and stones together. This result of the 
Tarawera eruption reminds us of the sudden destruction 
of Herculaneum and Pompeii, by the eruption of 
Vesuvius in A.D. 79, by the ashes and scoria ; but the 
entire absence of molten lava from the former outbreak 
marks a distinct difference. The most pathetic incidents 
were the deaths of Mr. Haszard, the schoolmaster, and 
his three children ; the injuries of Mrs. Haszard, who 
was dug out of the burnt and crushed house, with a 
dead child lying on her lap ; and the death of Mr. 
Edwin A. Bainbridge, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, at Macrae's 
Hotel. A touching little memoir of the latter, who 
was an eminent young Christian, has been written by 
Mr. Darlington (published by Morgan and Scott), from 
which I take the following details, as they give the 
reader a vivid picture of the horrors of that fatal 
night. 

Mr. Bainbridge had visited the Terraces on the 8th 
of June, and was staying at the Te "Wairoa Hotel, kept 
by a brave Scotchman, Macrae, on the night of the 9th. 



ERUPTION OF MOUNT TARAWERA. 131 

He was awakened about 1 A.M. by the landlord, who 
was the first in the house to be roused, by a severe 
earthquake and a roaring wind which suddenly sprang 
up. Mr. Minett, one of the twenty persons staying in 
the hotel, thus records the events of the night (I 
condense his narrative) : " I could see the Tarawera 
mountain belching out flames thousands of feet into the 
air, and illuminating the whole heavens, clouds of 
steam and smoke rose above this and a molten shining 
mass rolled down the sides. The wind increased ; it 
began, as we thought, to rain heavily. The windows 
were smashed in and we found that what we had taken 
for rain was scoria and stones. The wind, blowing 
violently, was veering and shifting in every direction ; 
stones and scoria were dashing on the house with 
deafening noise ; and the roaring of the crater was 
tremendous. The roof of the house now began to fall 
in various places ; dust, tons of sand, came thundering 
through the roof, clearing all before it, and lodging in 
the staircase within a yard of where we were assembled. 
Looking out, we perceived a fire on the opposite side of 
the road, which reminded us of the danger we were in 
from the same cause, and in about five minutes we saw 
a still larger fire to our right, which we made out was 
Mr. Haszard's house in a blaze. . . between earthquake 
and fire we stood expecting death. Mr. Bainbridge 
now, by consent of Mr. Macrae and the rest of those 
present, read a chapter from the Bible, about the 
penitent thief on the cross and his forgiveness, spoke a 
few words of solemn exhortation, and offered a beautiful 
and touching prayer. We were all silent expecting 
death at any moment either by being buried alive by 
the sand, mud, and stones that were overwhelming the 
house, or by suffocation by the sulphurous gases that 
pervaded the air, or by being crushed under the falling 
timbers ; or swallowed up by the opening ground as it 
trembled under our feet. Mr. Bainbridge, though calm, 
seemed to feel that he would not survive the night. 
He said that whether he lived or died the disaster 
would have a great effect on his family, as his brother 

K 2 



132 NEW ZEALAND. 

Cuthbert had been accidentally shot, and his sister May 
had lately died suddenly from disease. . . It was 
determined to make a start for Sophia's whare (whose 
highly sloped roof effectually prevented the mud from 
burying it, and thereby saved the lives of many) ; the 
crashing of the house in all directions and the roaring 
of the volcano prevented any one from hearing the 
sound of the falling verandah, which must have collapsed 
just at this time . . . When Mr. Bainbridge's body was 
found, it appeared that while in the act of leaving the 
hotel he had been caught and crushed by the verandah. 
His last words written in his diary on the night of his 
death were full of trust and faith : ' This is the most 
awful moment of my life. I cannot tell when I may 
be called on to meet my God. I am thankful that J 
find His strength sufficient for me.' " 

Kind Auckland friends buried him at Eotorua and 
erected an obelisk with a suitable inscription. Thus 
died a Christian hero at the early age of twenty, a 
simple, gentle, fearless, and pure character, beloved by 
all who knew him. 

Another victim of the eruption was a very different 
character, old Tuhoto, one of the last, if not the last, of 
the Maori tohungas, or priest-sorcerers, reputed to be 
104 years old. He was imprisoned in his whare for 
four days by the mud, and dug out alive ! He would 
have been lynched by the Maoris, who believed that 
his spells (karakias) had caused the eruption, but that his 
white friends hurried him off to the hospital at Eotorua, 
where he died in a few days. In times of great excite- 
ment Maoris sometimes lose the Christianity they are 
supposed to hold, and go back for the time to their 
ancient superstitious belief. 



The Wonderland that Remains. 

Eeaders must not think that the catastrophe of the 
10th June, 1886, has obliterated all that is worth seeing 
in the Hot Lake Country. Not by any means, for new 



ERUPTION OF MOUNT TAR AW ERA. 133 

places of great interest, hitherto unknown, have been 
opened up since that event. 

Between the Paeroa Kange on the west and the Kain- 
garoa Plain on the east lies the "Wai-o-tapu (" sacred 
river") Valley, stretching from Lake Ngahewa to Ohako. 
Guarded at its northern end by two grim giants, 
Mounts Maungaongaonga (" the mount of the stinging 
nettle "), 2764 feet, and Kakaramea, of the same height. 
This valley abounds in steam holes, fissures, cauldrons, 
natural hot baths, lakelets, and terraces in an early 
stage of formation. The view from the summit of 
Maungaongaonga is indescribably grand. Far down 
the valley you see Mount Tauhara, the " Lone Lover " 
of the Maoris, on which there is a splendid (extinct) 
crater ; beyond, the broad waters of Taupo glisten in the 
sun ; and in the background Tongariro and Ruapehu, 
mantled in whitest snow, stand out in relief against 
the blue sky, while the cloud of steam and smoke 
from Ngauruhoe, reminds you of Vesuvius in its usual 
aspect. Small lakes, the Green and the Blue, framed in 
dark-green foliage, glitter in the valley. The Kaingaroa 
Plains, fifteen miles wide, and seamed with many 
valleys, lie on the east, with a mass of wild broken 
country beyond them, extending as far as the eye can 
reach. 

The present chief attraction of Wai-o-tapu are the 
Pink Cauldron on the side of Maungaongaonga, and the 
White Terrace. The " Pink Cauldron " is a deep basin 
coated along its sides and bottom with cream-coloured 
silicious sinter, tinged with green, yellow, and pink 
hues, the latter predominating. In one corner of the 
basin a boiling pool gurgles and splutters, while loud 
thuds, as of a steam hammer at work, are heard at 
frequent intervals. On the uppermost side of the basin 
are three geysers, each about six feet in diameter, 
arranged one above the other, and filled with boiling 
water of the purest blue, which, as it rises, flows over 
the beautiful incrustations of pink and white silica 
which fringes these cups, and is gradually building up 
a tier of exquisitely designed steps. Close to these 



134 NEW ZEALAND. 

steps is a semicircular fissure, from which dense 
volumes of steam arise. Higher up the mountain side 
a .jet of steam issues from a small hole with a noise 
like a locomotive-engine letting off high-pressure steam. 
About four miles from the northern entrance to the 
valley is the " White Lake," so called from its sides 
being formed of milk-white silica, which has assumed a 
variety of fantastic shapes, and presents an indescrib- 
ably beautiful appearance. Close to this is the White 
Terrace, the Te Tarata of the future, now in process of 
formation. In years to come this piece of fairy-like 
workmanship will compensate for the loss to the world 
of the original model. At Wairakei also, six miles 
from Lake Taupo, there are a series of most curious 
geysers, one of which called the " Crow's Nest " from 
the peculiar nest-like form of the incrustation deposits, 
which include sticks, branches, and ferns, all silicated 
over and massed together, that enclose the funnel of the 
geyser is the subject of very great interest. The hot 
sulphurous baths here are of great efficacy. The growth 
of fruit-trees at this place is extraordinary, the peach 
and apple bearing luxuriantly after the first year. Most 
other fruit-trees flourish well, and the Australian gum- 
tree shoots up faster here even than elsewhere. 

The mountain of Horo-Horo, on the road to Wairakei 
from Kotorua, has a crag projecting from it resembling 
a veiled female ; the Maoris called it " Hinemoa 
turned to stone." Some miles from this is a rock 
called Dickens's Head from a supposed likeness to the 
novelist. At Ateamuri the road crosses the Waikato at 
a romantic spot, and the Huka Falls on this large river 
are most imposing. Lake Taupo, 241 miles square, 
affords the painter and the lover of scenery a perfect 
treat ; but its waters are treacherously stormy, and much 
care must be exercised in venturing across it or coasting 
in a boat. In due time the grand tour of the North 
Island will be through the country shown on map 3., 
taking first Te Aroha, then Rotorua, next the Terraces, 
Waiotapu Valley, and of Orakei-Korako on the 
Waikato Eiver ; the Alum Cave in the same locality ; 



ERUPTION OF MOUNT TARAWERA. 135 

then the "Wairakei geysers, the Huka Falls, Joshua's 
Baths, near Taupo township ; Lake Taupo itself, with 
Tokaano on its southern shore, where there are 
numerous geysers and hot springs ; the place where the 
chief Te Heu Heu, with a great number of his people, 
were overwhelmed by a landslip; thence along the 
road by the Poutou Valley, skirting the northern base 
of Tongariro (which now may be ascended without 
obstruction by the Maoris) ; by picturesque Lake Eoto 
Aira, for twenty miles or more along the eastern bases 
of Tongariro, Ngauruhoe, and Euapehu; or through 
most beautiful woodland and park-like plains to 
Waimarino, a Maori kainga on the line of the Central 
Trunk Eailway, about midway between Auckland and 
Wellington, a little over 200 miles from each city. 
The falls on the Upper Wanganui Eiver are also very 
well worth a visit, and Mount Egmont (Taranaki) 
affords one of the most satisfactory Alpine ascents in 
New Zealand. 



136 NEW ZEALAND. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

SELF-GOVERNMENT AND THE SETTLEMENT OF THE 
LAND. 

History of the colony Treaty of Waitangi, 1840 No convict 
element at any period Several centres of colonization Changes 
in the constitution Kesponsible self-government granted in 1853 
Governors of New Zealand from 1840 to 1889 Premiers since 
1853 Premiers I have known Beneficent Acts of Parliament 
Colonial debt, how incurred Absolute solvency of the colony 
proved by statistics Laws regulating sale, lease, and transfer of 
Crown lands Success of perpetual leasing and of village 
settlement. 

THE colony of New Zealand can justly boast that it 
was founded by free men, of their own will, and that it 
has never been the seat of convict establishments. In 
the first instance New Zealand was a Crown colony, 
having been so constituted at the time when the treaty 
of Waitangi was signed in February, 1840, by the 
leading Maori chiefs and by Captain Hobson, R.N., on 
the part of her Majesty Queen Victoria. By this 
treaty the Magna Charta, so to speak, of the Maori to 
this day the sovereignty of New Zealand was given 
up to the Queen, and the right of pre-emption of any 
lands the natives wished to sell was given to the Crown 
that is, the de facto government of the colony for the 
time being. But, in return, all their tribal rights and 
customs, their land, cattle, and other possessions, were 
retained by the Maoris, and they became British 
subjects, with all the privileges attaching to that proud 
position. The treaty was drafted by Mr. Busby, and 
fully interpreted by the Rev. Henry Williams. The 
chief, Tamati Waka Nene, afterwards our faithful ally 



SELF-GOVERNMENT. 137 

in the wars, was largely instrumental in determining 
the waverers among the chiefs to sign. Practically the 
Maoris have never been liable to direct taxation since 
this treaty, and their lands were by its Art. II. saved 
from the depredations of unscrupulous speculators In 
fact, the scrupulous desire of the colonial authorities, 
all through the history of New Zealand, to carry out 
this treaty in its integrity, and to specially safeguard 
the rights of the natives has retarded the settlement of 
the country. For so long as one adult Maori of the 
hapu (tribe) withheld his or her signature from the 
deed of transfer of any land held by the tribe, even 
though honestly sold and purchased, the white man's 
'title could not be validated. The tedious delays, 
repetitions of Maori genealogies, old stories of how this 
or that piece of land passed, by conquest, inheritance, or 
communal ownership from hand to hand ; and the cross- 
swearing, have caused many hundreds of honest settlers 
to curse the Treaty of Waitangi and the Native Lands 
Court Act, and some have even given up the intention 
of settling on native land, in despair of ever obtaining 
a clear title. The famous treaty was hastily drawn up 
because of the race between the English and French 
commanders to plant the flag of their respective 
countries first in New Zealand, and thus claim it as a 
colony. 

Of late years the procedures of the Native Lands 
Courts have been shortened and simplified, and, through 
interpreters, and their own increased knowledge of the 
English language and ways, the Maoris have come 
round to understand what an advantage it is for them 
to sell or lease their land at a good figure to men who 
will cultivate it, live upon it, and hire their labour also. 
I understand that Maoris work well for wages, though 
not for long at a time. Their railway sub-contracts are 
also faithfully performed. The Government has been a 
" paternal " one to the natives. From time to time 
special Acts of Parliament have been passed, providing 
for the equitable lease, sale, or transfer of their lands ; 
for their free education ; their Parliamentary represen- 



138 NEW ZEALAND. 

tation, medical attendance, food and shelter ; and the 
Maoris since the last peace have appreciated this 
kindness. The first Maori war was caused by the 
misunderstanding on the part of several Maori chiefs 
(who did not sign the treaty) of the provisions and 
binding character of that document. But in all their 
wars of independence it was only a minority of the 
natives who took up arms against us, the large majority 
either remaining peaceable, or assisting us actively. 
The Hau-hau or " Pai-marire " fanatical outbursts were 
confined to a small district, and soon were suppressed. 
As was remarked in chapter iii., the Maoris have always 
behaved honourably in open war, and while the 
" civilized " French were suffocating Arabs, men, women, 
and children, in caves in Algeria, the " savage " Maori 
was exchanging all the courtesies of war with the 
British who were conquering his country. And now all 
New Zealand, even the " King " country, is open to the 
traveller the remark made on p. 38 about the in- 
accessibility of the latter region only applying to the 
absence of roads, accommodation, sign-posts, and so on. 
If New Zealand were to be invaded, I am sure that the 
Maoris would enrol themselves as soldiers of the colony 
and fight to the last man for us, with all the bravery of 
their ancestors. 

The first Governor of New Zealand was Captain 
William Hobson, a just, humane, and prudent man, who 
kept faith with white man and Maori alike, and gave 
the " tone " to some who succeeded him which is so 
beneficial to the administration of a young and mixed 
community consisting of dominant and subject races. 
In 1840 he founded Auckland, and in the following 
year made it the capital of New Zealand. He died in 
1842 ; and after Lieut.-Colonel Shortland had carried 
on the Government for a year, Captain Fitzroy was 
appointed. After two years he was succeeded by Captain 
G. Grey (made a K.C.B. in 1848), who in September, 
1852, had the dignity of his office increased by the 
abolition of that of Lieutenant-Governor. 

Meantime colonization was going rapidly on from 



SELF-GOVERNMENT. 139 

four or five different centres. In 1840 Wellington, the 
present capital, was founded by the New Zealand 
Company of London. In 1841 New Plymouth and 
Nelson were commenced. Dunedin and the province 
of Otago were settled in 1848 by a band of Scottish 
Presbyterians, and in 1850 Christchurch and the 
province of Canterbury were founded by a Church of 
England association. Thus it was that the proverbial 
Presbyterian ruling element in Dunedin and the Epis- 
copalian sentiment of Christchurch came about. With 
the exceptions, however, of a German settlement at 
Puhoi, near Waiwera, and the Scandinavians at Norse- 
wood and Dannevirke, all of which are thriving, there 
is no predominance of either one religion or one 
nationality in any town or district in the colony. When 
at Tromso within the arctic circle, this summer (1889), 
I saw with much pleasure a party of hardy Norsemen 
ready to go out to New Zealand a change indeed from 
a winter temperature (the mean average) of 23 to one 
of 56 ! 

The colonization from four great centres has made 
New Zealand very different from the Australian 
colonies, each of which grew from one centre only. 
This fact also increases the difficulty of governing New 
Zealand effectively from one point. Decentralization 
has had its day, and now the tendency is to too great 
centralization. The reason why so large a salary and 
allowance, amounting to 7500 per annum, has been 
hitherto paid to the Governor by a colony so small in 
population is that, in order to be useful throughout the 
whole colony, the Governor must visit and stay at all the 
four " capitals " during his term of office, although his 
permanent official residence is in Wellington. 

Up to the year 1853 New Zealand remained a Crown 
colony. In that year responsible government in the shape 
of a popular Constitution, on a plan drawn up by Sir 
George Grey and adopted by the Imperial Government 
in 1852, was granted to New Zealand. The Governor, 
appointed by the Queen for five years ; a Legislative 
Council composed of members nominated for life by the 



140 NEW ZEALAND. 

Crown ; and a House of Representatives elected by the 
people on a liberal franchise for five years constituted 
the legislature of the colony. Power was given to the 
legislature to make laws, to raise loans, to levy duties 
and impose taxes, and to modify the constitution of the 
colony. New Zealand was divided into six, afterwards 
nine, provinces : in the North Island the provinces of 
Auckland, Hawke's Bay, Taranaki, and Wellington ; 
in the Middle Island the Provinces of Nelson, Marl- 
borough, Westland, Canterbury, and Otago. Each 
province was administered by an elective super- 
intendent and an elective council ; and each province 
sent a certain number of representatives to the Colonial 
Parliament. Twenty years of this mode of govern- 
ment sufficiently proved its impracticability, when 
such hotly disputed subjects as land endowments, the 
construction of railways, roads, and bridges, and the 
apportionment of the money raised at home, came under 
discussion. Each province tried to grasp the largest 
share of the good things dealt out by the central 
colonial Government. After several years' discussion 
a sweeping reform was carried out in 1875, whereby 
the whole Provincial System of administration was 
abolished, and the colony was divided into sixty-three 
counties, each provided with an elective county council 
armed with full powers of local self-government, 
including rating. From time to time enlarged powers 
have been granted by the Imperial Government to the 
New Zealand Parliament ; in fact, the whole tendency 
of imperial legislation, as it affects this colony, for 
the past thirty years, has been to give the colony 
absolute self-government in its domestic matters. The 
Governor has the power of assenting to or withholding 
assent from the Acts passed by the colonial legislature, 
or he can "reserve them for her Majesty's will and 
pleasure." 

Two facts in the parliamentary history of New 
Zealand speak well for the right-mindedness, loyalty, 
and common sense of its legislators : first, there has 
never been in New Zealand a " dead-lock " between the 



SELF-GOVERNMENT. 141 

two Houses of Parliament, as in several of the Aus- 
tralian colonies ; and, second, that out of more than 
two thousand Acts passed in New Zealand there have 
not been more than six instances of disallowance (veto) 
by the Queen. 

It may be of interest here to enumerate in chrono- 
logical order the excellent Governors who have filled 
the New Zealand appointment now a first-class 
governorship at the Colonial Office from the death 
of Captain Hobson in 1842 to the present time, 
omitting only the temporary administrators. In the 
absence or resignation of the Governor the administra- 
tion of his functions devolves upon the Chief Justice 
of the Supreme Court. The list is as follows : Captain 
Fitzroy ; Sir George Grey ; Colonel T. Gore Browne ; Sir 
George Grey (second term) ; Sir G. F. Bowen ; Sir James 
Fergusson, Bart. ; The Marquis of Normanby ; Sir 
Hercules Eobinson ; Sir Arthur Gordon ; Sir W. F. D. 
Jervois ; Lord Onslow. These have been all able men, 
and as a rule the rank that New Zealand holds in the 
classification of colonial governorships entitles it to 
obtain the services of experienced administrators. 

In New Zealand great legislative experiments are 
being tried and worked out which are carefully watched 
by both political parties at home, and by the Americans 
and foreigners who visit the country. Parliaments are 
triennial ; all members are paid ; practically manhood 
suffrage exists ; petitions to Parliament and objections 
to parliamentary elections have a careful consideration 
accorded them ; the conduct of Government officials and 
of public men is freely ventilated by the press ; and 
on the whole the government of New Zealand, with all 
its faults, comes as near as may be to the democratic 
ideal of a " government by the people and for the 
people." At the present time, owing to the heavy 
burden of interest payable on the colonial debt 
(35,196,000 on March 31, 1888), large reductions 
are being made in all branches of the Government. 
The Governor's salary is reduced to 5000 ; the 
salaries of Cabinet ministers are largely reduced ; the 



142 NEW ZEALAND. 

number of representatives is decreased from 95 to 74, 
thereby saving twenty-one honoraria of 210 each paid 
to members ; and the civil service has been so cut 
down that in the executive departments of Government 
the saving already effected amounts to 233,000. In 
chapter ix. I have summarised briefly the financial 
and economical position of the colony, and need not 
further enlarge on this important subject. These 
Radical principles of representative popular govern- 
ment above enumerated seem to tend to frequent 
changes of the Ministry the real Government'of New 
Zealand. In my comparatively short residence in the 
colony I have witnessed the entrance and exit of six 
ministries (in nine years), each change being accom- 
panied with a certain amount of disturbance in the 
steady working of the public services, and a variation of 
the financial policy of the preceding Cabinet, so far 
as regards the mode of raising money. The incidence 
of taxation is, of course, the " burning question " of the 
last nineteen years, for at the present time the six 
hundred thousand white people of New Zealand have 
to pay the enormous interest, annually, of the sum of 
1,767,200 at least, not having the legerdemain skill 
of Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G., in figures, I cannot make 
it less, after a diligent study of all the latest statements 
and statistics. But, from what has been stated above, 
the reader will understand that the Government is 
manfully economising in every possible way, and so 
good is the credit of the colony in the Home money 
market that the last (1888) four per cent, loan of two 
millions was subscribed for four times over. 

In chapter ix. I have clearly stated the process, 
reasons, or excuses for, and results of, the " borrowing 
policy ; " and sketched candidly the present position 
and future prospects of New Zealand. 

On looking over the list of Premiers and Ministers 
since 1853, I have been struck with the fact that even 
this changeful Parliament of colonists chooses the same 
men, over and over again, to lead them and guide them. 
I consider it a high testimony to their character and 



SELF-GOVERNMENT. 143 

ability. As a chronological table would occupy too 
much space, I will merely enumerate the names of the 
premiers since 1856, when Mr. Henry Sewell took 
office on the 7th of May. On the 20th of May he was 
succeeded by my friend Sir William Fox, who has four 
times served his country most ably in this responsible 
position. Next in order comes Sir E. W. Stafford, who 
has thrice been premier; next Alfred Domett, author 
of that charming poem " Ranolf and Amohia;" Sir 
Frederick Whitaker, whose honourable sobriquet is 
" the Nestor of politics," twice premier ; Sir Frederick 
A. Weld, whose successful career as governor of various 
colonies (Tasmania, Straits Settlements, &c.) is well 
known ; G. M. Waterhouse, Esq., who bears a striking 
facial resemblance to Charles Kingsley ; Sir Julius 
Vogel, the celebrated financier, twice ; Daniel Pollen, 
Esq. ; Sir George Grey, K.C.B. ; Sir John Hall ; Sir 
Robert Stout, a clever advocate, the head of the colonial 
bar, twice ; and Sir Harry Atkinson, who Jive times 
has been chosen premier, and is now (1889) holding 
that arduous position. I have sometimes mentally 
compared him to Cincinnatus, for the honourable 
gentleman is an ardent agriculturist and raiser of 
choice breeds of fowls and ducks in the sylvan glades 
and breezy downs of Taranaki. 

The five premiers whom I have the honour of knowing 
personally are men of vigorous intellect, of learning and 
culture, of knowledge of men and statecraft, frank yet 
dignified in bearing, courteous in demeanour, having 
" fads " no doubt, but not injurious ones. There is much 
to be said, e.g., for Sir Harry Atkinson's " fad " of national 
insurance, and for Sir George Grey's "fad" of land nation- 
alization ; and all these five are men who would not only 
do credit to the British Houses of Parliament, either as 
Peers or Commons, but even to the Imperial Ministry. 

A Cabinet minister in New Zealand, as in other free 
colonies, must learn to be pachydermatous, yet con- 
ciliatory. While in office everyone may worry them 
with letters, petitions, interviews, and so forth, while 
the opposition newspapers continually accuse them of 



144 NEW ZEALAND. 

idling, pleasuring at the country's expense, nepotism, 
promise-breaking, bribing partisans, voting themselves 
extra allowances, and all that sort of electioneering 
calumny. I used to feel hurt sometimes, when I knew 
for a fact that none of these gentlemen had done these 
things, nor had they enriched but rather impoverished 
themselves by their tenure of high office. Out of those 
five premiers, one has immortalized his name by the 
magnificent gift of a library of rare literary gems 
to the city of Auckland ; another has employed for 
many years his rare legal acumen to draw up with 
accuracy wise, just, and beneficent Acts of Parliament ; 
and a third has proved himself the most economical 
minister the colony ever had. 

Quite recently the entire colony has been divided into 
equal electoral districts, and a modification of the Hare 
system of cumulative voting is to be introduced another 
important experiment in Representative Government. 

And. now, bidding adieu to colonial politics, I will 
come to the chief object of this chapter, which is to give 
the intending immigrant some idea of the land laws 
of New Zealand, and of the kind of land that he will 
find still unappropriated. 

The colony is filling .up more slowly since the public 
money used in granting free or assisted passages came 
to an end. But already about one in every five of the 
adult males of New Zealand occupy and work land. 
The number of holdings of one acre and upwards in 
February, 1888, was 34,743. Of land cultivated or 
broken up ready for cultivation there are twelve acres for 
each person (man, woman and child) in the colony. In 
Great Britain and Ireland the proportion is not quite 
1 acres per head. Upwards of thirty- three million 
acres of land belonging to the Crown are still unsold 
in the colony. Of these acres fourteen millions are 
open fern or grass land, ten millions forest, and nine 
million barren mountain-tops, lakes, and worthless 
country. The Crown lands of the colony are ad- 
ministered under two laws called "The Land Act, 
1885," and the " The Land Act Amendment Act, 1887." 



SELF- VERNMENT. 145 

The large tracts still owned by the Maoris, however, 
are dealt with under another law, " The Native Lands 
Act, 1888," whereby every precaution possible is pro- 
vided to cheapen and facilitate the sale, lease, or 
transfer of native land, and to establish firmly the 
title of the purchaser. In no country in the world is 
the transfer and registration of land more inexpensive 
and complete than in New Zealand. Oh that we had 
such a state of things in England, where a simple lease 
of a house costs 10 ! There are Crown Lands Offices 
in the following thirteen cities and towns in New 
Zealand (possibly others may have been opened since 
these lines were written) : Auckland, Tauranga, Gis- 
borne, Napier, New Plymouth, Patea, Wellington 
(North Island), Nelson, Blenheim, Christchurch, Hoki- 
tika, Dunedin, and Invercargill (Middle Island). Crown 
lands are divided into three classes : 

1. Town and village lands, being the sites heretofore 
reserved or which shall be hereafter reserved for towns 
and villages. 

2. Suburban lands in the vicinity of the above. 

3. Rural lands, comprising all other land, whether 
forest, pastoral, or agricultural, except mining ground. 

These lands can be purchased direct from the Crown, 
thus rendering all swindles by land agents either at 
home or in the colony impossible. They are sold by 
public auction from time to time, as the demand varies, 
or on application by intending purchasers at the Land 
Office of the district, at prices varying from five to forty 
shillings per acre, according to one or other of the 
following plans : 

I. Immediate and Full Cash Payment at the " upset 
price," thus securing the freehold of the land without 
any further liability. The area purchaseable by one 
adult is wisely restricted by law to 640 acres of first- 
class or 2000 acres of second-class land, in order to 
discourage the formation of large estates belonging to 
one individual. Of course companies can purchase to 
a larger amount. 

II. The Deferred Payment System, (area not more 

L 



146 NEW ZEALAND. 

than 320 acres per head). Suburban lands are sold 
at 4 10s. per acre ; rural lands at not less than 1 
per acre, except in certain parts of the colony, where the 
price may be less. The payments are made in equal 
instalments every six months, and are spread over a 
period of five years for suburban and ten years for 
rural land. The selector binds himself to reside on the 
land for at least six years, and to fence and cultivate 
a certain amount of ground each year. If more than 
one person applies for the same land on the same day 
it is put up for competition by tender, limited to the 
applicants. Supposing a piece of rural land is priced 
at 1 per acre, the purchaser pays only one shilling 
every six months for ten years, at the end of which 
time the freehold of the land becomes his own. An- 
other convenient arrangement is provided by the 
Government: any purchaser under this system who 
has paid his two first instalments, and has complied 
with all the conditions of cultivation, may have the 
amount of the unpaid instalments capitalized, at 
the then value of an annuity of the same amount 
as the payments then due to complete the purchase. 
The settler then begins to pay semi-annually, instead 
of the original half-yearly instalment of the purchase 
money a sum which is fixed at five per cent, upon that 
capitalized amount until the whole of the balance is 
paid to the Government. 

III. Perpetual Leasing. To a bond-fide occupier lands 
in certain districts are leased at a fixed rental of five per 
cent, on the capital value, which is usually 1 per acre, 
for thirty years, with right of renewal for twenty-one 
years, and so on for ever. The area of land per head 
leased in this way is restricted to 640 acres. The first 
lessee has the right of purchase after six and within 
twelve years if he elects to buy. At the end of the 
first lease, should the occupier wish to sell the lease to 
anyone, the incoming tenant is bound by law to pay 
the full value of all improvements made on the estate 
by the first lessee. He is also bound to carry out the 
original conditions made by the Government. By the 



SELF-GOVERNMENT. 147 

Act of 1877 the freehold of land held in this way may 
be acquired on certain easy terms. This is the first 
practical attempt that I am acquainted with towards 
land nationalization. 

IV. The Homestead System. This method of taking 
up land is specially adapted for poor settlers. No 
payment is required except the cost of survey. On the 
completion of the conditions, namely, the erection of a 
house, and the cultivation of one-third of all his holding 
if open land, or one-fifth if bush land, the settler will 
receive his freehold and title from the Crown. Each 
person of eighteen years of age may take up fifty to 
seventy-five acres, and if under eighteen years, twenty to 
thirty acres. It is possible for a man and his family 
(the wife not being eligible as a selector) to take up as 
much as 200 acres of good open land and work it so as 
to make a decent living out of it in three or four 
years. 

V. The Village Settlement Act provides that any 
person can select fifty acres of land in a particular 
locality reserved for a village settlement, on perpetual 
lease, with right of purchase. The rental charged is five 
per cent, on the purchasing price. The great advantage is 
that a small proprietor can find work for wages among his 
neighbours, and can on his leisure days be constantly 
improving his own farm. 

VI. Special Settlements. Any number of persons, 
not less than twenty-five, of approved character, may 
obtain the privilege of selecting a large block of land, 
subject to all the conditions of deferred payment, or 
perpetual lease, as the case may be, on which they 
can all settle adjacent to each other. Many flourishing 
villages have thus been formed, in the North Island 
especially, some by Englishmen of the same religious 
denomination (Port Albert), some by Germans (Puhoi), 
some by Scandinavians (Norsewood). And it has been 
found that those special settlements flourish best 
where public-houses have been religiously excluded 
from the block. Some, it is true, have failed, because 
of the poverty of the land selected, or because of 

L 2 



148 NEW ZEALAND. 

internal squabbles, or of unsuitability of some of the 
settlers for farming or agricultural work. But the 
scheme of every one of these six modes of land settle- 
ment is well thought out and thoroughly workable, 
being fair to both buyer and seller, and safeguarded 
against abuse by the capitalist. 

VII. Small Grazing Euns, not exceeding 5000 
acres. These are let from time to time by public 
auction for a term of twenty-one years, with right of re- 
newal for a second term of same length, at an upset price 
of 2 per cent, on the capital value. Kecent sales (1888) 
realised from threepence to one shilling and eightpence 
per acre, annual rental. The lessee has the exclusive right 
of the natural pasturage, and may cultivate any or all 
of the area leased. Full valuation for improvements is 
allowed to the tenant at the end of each lease. 

VIII. Pastoral Kuns. These are let by auction on 
leases for terms not exceeding twenty-one years, in large 
areas of 5000 acres and upwards. The average rental 
is about fourpence per acre per annum. Any number 
of runs may be leased by one person or by a company. 
Valuation to an amount not exceeding three years' 
rental is allowed to the outgoing tenant for any im- 
provements he may have made. In the Middle Island 
about eleven million acres of natural pasturage are 
leased in this way. 

Special provisions are made by the laws of the colony 
for agricultural leases of land containing minerals, and 
for gold-mining or Crown lands. 

Success in New Zealand, as I have hinted in the 
opening chapter, as indeed everywhere else in the 
colonies, depends on the character of the immigrant 
and the right choice of his place of settlement. No 
other colony can show a greater number of families 
who by steady industry, thrift, honesty, and perse- 
verance have raised themselves from poverty to com- 
fort or even wealth. There is hope, therefore, for all 
immigrants who can and will diligently and intelli- 
gently work the land; but let the foolish idea that 
anyone can without previous training become a sue- 



SELF- O VERNMENT. 149 

cessful farmer be dismissed from our minds. The 
home-bred agriculturist is more likely to succeed in 
New Zealand at farming than he who has previously 
followed a different trade or occupation. The excel- 
lence of Systems III., IV., and V., consists in the 
economy of capital, and the wise expenditure of labour 
by the humblest, poorest, and least educated of settlers. 
Many of these men have far surpassed Jesse Collings's 
ideal of " three acres and a cow " by the acquisition, 
entirely through their own toil, of well-improved farms 
of from 200 to 400 acres, a score or two of cows, 
numerous sheep, orchards, vegetable gardens, and a 
comfortable frame-house. And, what is most important 
of all, the settler has a ready sale for. his lambs, sheep, 
and agricultural produce, as will be seen by the state- 
ment in chapter x. Every year more lines of road and 
rail are being opened up from the interior to the coast, 
and from the large towns into the country. At the 
end of March, 1888, seventeen hundred and seventy 
miles of railway were open and 8478 miles of road in 
the colony. By sea the communication between ports 
is frequent and regular, but the freights are too high for 
the small farmer because the coast of New Zealand is 
very dangerous and the Union Steamship Company 
have practically extinguished all competitipn. We 
must acknowledge, however, that no steamship company 
has done as much as the Union Company to develop 
and extend the coastal and inter-colonial trading 
facilities of New Zealand. 



150 NEW ZEALAND. 



CHAPTER IX. 
PUBLIC WORKS AND INSTITUTIONS. 

Their growth Nourished on loans Keaction and commercial 
depression Improving prospects and returning prosperity 
Churches Education : Primary, Secondary, and University 
New Zealand University Its statutes, meetings, &c. Auckland 
University College Technical education Otago Medical School 
Lincoln School of Agriculture The Press of New Zealand 
Hospitals, refuges, asylums Police, gaols, public works, post- 
office departments Government Insurance Government trus- 
tees, assignees in bankruptcy Friendly and Building societies 
Sailors' Homes and Rests. 

THE multiplication and growth of the public works 
and institutions of New Zealand, using the word 
" institutions " in its widest or American sense, have 
been so rapid since the inauguration by Sir Julius 
Vogel, in 1870, of the daring 'public works and 
immigration policy ' as to excite the apprehension of 
thoughtful colonists, that the country was " going 
ahead" too fast. The policy of developing a new 
country on borrowed capital, apparently imitated by 
this astute but too sanguine financier from the example 
of the United States and the South American republics 
is a dangerous one. As long as the public money was 
circulated freely the colony was prosperous, but this 
prosperity resembles that of the " remittance men " 
described in chapter xi., a seeming and temporary, 
rather than a real and permanent prosperity. When 
the expenditure of the loans so freely spent on the 
public works of the Government came to an end, 
the whole of New Zealand felt the pinch, and a state 
of commercial depression set in about the year 1885, 
which is only now passing off. 



PUBLIC WOEKS AND INSTITUTIONS. 151 

Each of the last four ministries of the colony has 
come into office pledged to " economy and retrench- 
ment," but Sir H. Atkinson's ministry alone has been 
successful in grappling with these Herculean and 
unpopular labours. The stoppage of all money help 
from the Government to immigrants, the imposition of 
a direct tax (the property tax) ; the cessation of half- 
finished works, throwing out of employment hundreds 
of workmen, and the dismissal of numerous officials, 
came upon the community almost simultaneously witli 
a falling-off of exports, a diminished production of gold 
from the mines, and a lessened influx of tourists, the 
travelling world having heard that the great attrac- 
tion of New Zealand, the Sinter Terraces, had been 
destroyed (chapter vii.). 

The problem of how 600,000 people are to pay the 
annual interest and sinking fund due on a debt of 
over 35,000,000, while continuing in a state of 
efficiency an overgrown civil service of which the 
costly Education Department is really a branch, and 
the payment of representatives in Parliament an off- 
shoot is one that taxes severely the ingenuity of our 
colonial Chancellors of the Exchequer. Doubtless, on 
reviewing the colony's history, it is to be regretted that 
this huge borrowing was not delayed until, by natural 
and not artificial processes, such as free immigration, 
the population had increased to four or five times its 
present number, so that these financial burdens would 
have been more easily borne, being distributed over a 
larger number of tax -payers. But those who accuse 
New Zealand of having not only borrowed recklessly 
but spent extravagantly upon unremunerative or un- 
necessary works and there are many such critics at 
home I find must remember that (1) more than 
twenty-four and a half millions have been spent on 
public works of a permanent value, which have greatly 
improved and opened up for settlement the interior of 
the colony; (2) that since 1870 large numbers of 
people have been attracted to the country, many of 
whom have become useful colonists ; and (3) the 



152 NEW ZEALAND. 

present inhabitants of a young country are now 
enjoying all the conveniences of the most advanced 
civilization in some matters, such as cheap telephones, 
surpassing the mother country. In order to remove 
the too prevalent but erroneous impression in England 
that New Zealand is hopelessly sunk in debt, I have 
collected the following facts, which, being official, are 
absolutely correct, and, when connected with the 
chapter on productions and industries (chapter x.), 
shou-ld go far towards establishing a confidence in the 
solvency of this vigorous colony. 

1. The surplus assets over all liabilities of all public 
and private property in New Zealand amounted in 
May, 1887, to no less than 128,803,635. 

2. With the exception of France and Switzerland, 
no country in the world can show so large a proportion 
of savings bank depositors to the general population as 
New Zealand, viz., one in six. This fact shows that 
there is a thrift among the colonists which one would 
not have expected to find among a people of such 
wasteful habits as regards food, and so lavish as regards 
expenditure on amusements. At the end of March, 
1888, after three years of great commercial depres- 
sion, the moneys deposited in the Government and 
seven other savings banks amounted to no less than 
2,462,304, standing to the credit of 99,277 depositors. 
The stability of the population is shown by the fact 
that there are 80,527 owners of land in the colony. 

3. The stern but necessary reductions in the Govern- 
ment offices are keeping down the cost while not 
diminishing the efficiency of the collection of the 
public revenue. 

4. The exports of the colony, by the latest returns, 
show a substantial increase. 

5. Capital is flowing into the colony from Australia, 
an instance of which is the recent purchase by a 
syndicate, largely composed of Australians, of all the 
Kauri forests, mills, and machinery in the North 
Island. 

6. The surplus of revenue over expenditure for the 



PUBLIC WORKS AND INSTITUTIONS. 153 

past financial year (1888-9), shows an increase of no 
less than 453,000. 

7. The land sales are greatly improved, 330,817 
acres having been purchased by 1893 persons on one 
or other of the plans described in chapter viii. during 
the year ending March, 1889. 

The reader, then, or his friends who may chance to 
hold New Zealand bonds need not fear either the loss 
of principal or the suspension of payment of interest. 

The following brief account of the most important 
public works, institutions, and societies of New Zealand 
must be premised by stating that the latest complete 
census of the colony is that of 1886 ; that the statistics 
for 1888 and 1889 are not yet available; and that 
there are many smaller institutions and societies useful 
to the colony which cannot be included for want of 
space. 

1. Religion. 

In New Zealand, there being no connection between 
Church and State, and no one religious body having 
any social or political pre-eminence over another, one 
fruitful element of discord in the old country does not 
exist in the new. The very few endowments that exist 
have been presented by the early native converts to 
the missionaries, or acquired by the latter for their 
churches by subscription. The non-existence of either 
Establishment or State endowment seems to give 
exactly that stimulus to the free Church of England 
in New Zealand which is lacking in many quarters 
at Home. The new-comer notices an activity and 
aggressiveness about its organization, a freshness and 
vigour in its preaching, and a personal knowledge and 
regard existing between clergyman and congregation, 
that are not by any means universal in England. 

By the latest religious census, that of 1886, it 
appeared that there were then in New Zealand 1499 
buildings open for public worship, with accommodation 
for over 256,000 persons, being an increase of 385 on 



154 NEW ZEALAND. 

the number of similar buildings in 1881. Out of the 
entire population of 578,482 persons, exclusive of 
Maoris, there were 

Protestants . . . 461,340 

Roman Catholics . 80,715 

Of no denomination . 9 , 888 

Jews and others . . 6,650 

Objected to state their religion 19,889 

Analyzing the first division of the foregoing official 
classification (which is singularly expressed), we find 
under the term " Protestants " 

Church of England 229,757 

Presbyterians 130,643 

Wesleyan and other Methodists . . . 45,164 

Baptists, Congregationalists, Salvation Army,) ,-K 77^ 

and other denominations . . . f ' 

The number of children attending Sunday-schools 
was found to be 99,884, an increase of 20,993 over the 
attendance in 1881. 

I leave readers to draw their own conclusions from 
these official figures. I have no means of ascertaining 
how the different denominations have varied in numbers 
since 1886, the next census being not due till 1891. 

There is much Christian work being done by all 
denominations in New Zealand. The laity make 
much personal sacrifice to maintain the edifices and 
services of their churches, and to evangelize rather 
than proselytize the community at large, among whom 
a certain amount of combative atheism and a large 
amount of indifference to religion exist. The stipends 
of clergymen and ministers are very moderate, and 
are raised with some difficulty in unprosperous times. 
Their incomes are derived from pew rents, grants from 
missionary societies at home, small endowments, and 
voluntary subscriptions. A bishop's income rarely 
exceeds 900, a clergyman's would average 300, and 
a curate's 120. My clerical readers must not take 
these rough estimates as " gospel," but as approximations 
to the truth. 



PUBLIC WOEKS AND INSTITUTIONS. 155 

It is very pleasing to one who has witnessed some- 
thing of inter-sectarian bitterness (so utterly opposed 
to the spirit of Christ's teaching) in old England, to 
see, in this free country, that in settlements where 
no one religious body is strong enough to support a 
resident minister, a hall or schoolroom is hired and 
shared by the Episcopalians, Wesleyans, Presbyterians, 
and others, who hold their services in rotation, in 
perfect harmony, by mutual arrangement. 

In Christchurch, founded by the Church of England 
Association in 1850, there is a preponderance of 
Episcopalians; and in Dunedin, first established by 
Presbyterians, there is a predominating element of that 
creed ; but in Wellington, Auckland, Nelson, and the 
other large towns, sects are pretty equally mixed. 
Albertland, ninety miles north of Auckland, was founded 
by Congregationalists, and Eoman Catholics pervade 
the Pensioner settlement of Howick. 

Most of the places of worship are built of wood, but 
Christchurch boasts of a fine stone Anglican cathedral, 
and Dunedin of her stone Presbyterian churches. 
Notwithstanding the commercial depression having 
temporarily limited the power of giving, there has 
been a steady increase, since the last census, of places of 
worship and of evangelistic services in halls and school- 
rooms. The missions among the Maoris are heartily 
maintained, and, now that the whole body of natives 
are Christianized, there is no difficulty in supplying 
them with trained native clergymen and evangelists. 

The Church of England in New Zealand takes the 
lead, naturally enough, in numbers, and in influence, 
throughout all the provincial districts, except Otago 
and Southland. It is free, as I have stated, from all 
State control, and has the advantage of an excellent 
working Constitution, mainly drawn up by that great 
and good man, George Augustus Selwyn, first Bishop 
of New Zealand, whose memory is to the present hour 
very dearly cherished. 

After the disestablishment of the Church of Ireland, 
that church was remodelled on the plan of this very 



156 NEW ZEALAND. 

Constitution, in its main principles the greatest respect 
that could be shown to it. The General Synod of the 
Episcopal Church is the ruling body ; and each diocese 
has its diocesan synod, presided over by the Bishop of 
that diocese. The Diocesan Synods meet once a year, 
the General Synod once in three years, taking the 
principal cities in rotation. Standing committees con- 
duct the business that may accrue between the synodal 
meetings. So well do these committees attend to their 
business, and so admirably is the voting power dis- 
tributed among the three orders of the Church 
bishops, clergy, and laity that never since the first 
meeting of the General Synod in Wellington, March 9th, 
1859, has any serious discord or quarrel occurred in 
this branch of the Church of England. The memor- 
able date of the adoption of this constitution at Auck- 
land was June 13th, 1857. Presided over by hard- 
working bishops, on whom much of the spirit of Sehvyn 
has fallen (as in the case of our Bishop Cowie of Auck- 
land) ; officered by a clergy filled with a zeal almost 
free from Bitualism ; and filled with lay members who 
liberally respond to the calls made upon them; the 
Church of England in New Zealand is a power for good 
in the land. All the other Protestant denominations 
are active and doing much good, and it behoves them 
to be aggressive in the new country, for new-comers too 
often not only desert their home Church, whatever it 
may be, but also throw aside all external observances 
of religion, and sometimes drift away into absolute 
indifference, or into atheism, if a helping hand is not 
extended to them by the churches. 

2. Education. 

The educational system, which is estimated to cost 
the colonists not less than 400,000 per annum, is the 
pride of the average New Zealander. It is free, com- 
pulsory, and absolutely secular. The burden of supply- 
ing free Primary education to 110,000 children of school 
age seven to thirteen scattered over a hundred 



PUBLIC WOEKS AND INSTITUTIONS. 157 

thousand square miles of land, falls upon a population 
rather less than that of Liverpool and Birkenhead, and 
is indeed heavy. For the authorities, in their zeal to 
carry out the Act, have built " full " or " half-time " 
schools in every place, however remote, where there are 
a dozen settlers or so. While the English tax-payer 
pays one shilling and eightpence every year for public 
education (not absolutely free in England) the New 
Zealander pays no less than eleven shillings and 
sixpence. The principle of popular control over the 
schools is carried out thus. In each city, town, or 
country district, a School Committee is elected annually 
by those persons who are on the electoral roll. This 
Committee manages all the business of the schools in 
its district, hears complaints, supervises the teacher, 
but has no power either to appoint or remove him. 
This power, along with the regulation of the course of 
study, school-books, furniture, pay, appointment, re- 
moval, or censure of teachers, is reserved for the School 
Board of the province, to which each School Committee 
sends a delegate. Representatives of the higher edu- 
cational institutions have also seats on these School 
Boards, which have permanent secretaries, and appoint 
the Inspectors of schools. The head of the whole 
department is the Minister of Education. 

The teachers in the Primary schools are carefully 
selected, according to merit, by the boards from men 
and women who (1) have had large experience at home 
and have a university degree ; (2) or who have passed 
creditably through the training colleges of the colony ; 
or (3) who have taken the B.A. degree of the New 
Zealand University. The four standards for examination 
in the primary schools are similar to those of the 
Education Code of Great Britain ; and the teaching is 
thorough, for payment by results forms the larger part 
of the teachers' salary. In 1887 there were 1093 
primary schools, with 110,919 pupils on the rolls, the 
mean average number attending each school being 82. 
The number of children on the rolls had increased over 
that of 1886 by 4591, in a larger proportion than the 



158 NEW ZEALAND. 

increase in the population during the year. The actual 
daily average attendance during the fourth quarter of 
the year 1887 was 89,589 children. There were also 
13,437 children attending private and denominational 
elementary schools. Counting in the latter we find 
that New Zealand possesses one school for every 470 
inhabitants, which is the largest proportion of any 
nation in the world, France coming near it with 
one school to 500 inhabitants. The fact that young 
Australia and young New Zealand are well educated 
is beginning to strike travellers. Out of 10,000 
children, in any part of the Australian colonies, it is 
found that 9481 can read, and 8535 can write and read, 
showing that colonial parents freely avail themselves 
of the free schools. The only charge is one shilling 
per quarter for school requisites, and even this is 
remitted where poverty is proved to the board's satis- 
faction. The figures relating to New Zealand abun- 
dantly show the appreciation by the New Zealand 
parent of the present system of education. 

But here let me say as a paterfamilias, and as a sincere 
well-wisher to New Zealand, that in my humble opinion 
the framers of the Education Act have made too much 
of the so-called "religious difficulty," in absolutely 
excluding not only the simple reading of the Bible 
without note or comment, but also even hymns, prayer, 
or any form of recognition of the Deity from the public 
schools. I cannot, for the life of me, see why these 
simple and comprehensive elements of worship the 
prayer or hymn being of course so drawn as to contain 
no disputed doctrinal teaching such as are used daily 
in Great Britain, most of the United States, Ireland, 
and New South Wales I cannot understand, I repeat, 
how or why this procedure should .be stigmatised as 
" denominational endowment," or " teaching religion at 
the expense of the State." After all, in training a 
young nation, it should be remembered that it is 
" righteousness," not mere education, that " exalteth a 
nation ; " and that education, properly conducted, may 
be made the handmaid of righteousness. That the 



PUBLIC WORKS AND INSTITUTIONS. 159 

heart and intellect of man require the moral teaching 
and Divine truths of the Bible to preserve him from 
degradation, the facts of colonial life (as of life, indeed, 
everywhere) abundantly testify. The " larrikinism " 
commented upon in chapter xi. might have been 
checked in its origin had the Bible been read in the 
Primary schools from their first start. 

Proceeding, after this digression, step by step higher 
in public education, we come to the Secondary schools, 
called " Grammar schools," " High schools," or Colleges, 
all of which, while State aided by money grants, or 
State-endowed by lands, charge moderate fees to parents, 
in addition. In 1887 these schools numbered twenty- 
two, teaching 2242 pupils. From my son's experience 
I can bear witness that the curriculum and teaching 
of one of these, the Auckland College and Grammar 
School (Headmaster, C. F. Bourne, Esq., M.A.), are fully 
equal to what exist in similar schools in England. The 
fees there are only eight to ten guineas per annum. 
School text-books are, naturally, more costly about 
fifteen to twenty-five per cent. than at home. 

Next come the University Colleges, of which there are 
three, namely, Auckland University College, Canterbury 
College, at Christchurch, and the Otago University, at 
Dunedin, all affiliated to the New Zealand University. 
A movement is on foot to establish a Wellington Uni- 
versity College, so that each of the four great centres 
may have this higher education brought into their 
midst, but the pressing necessity for economy prevents 
the present Government from granting the money for 
it. These Colleges are teaching, not degree-granting 
institutions, and are governed by Councils, partly 
nominated by the Government, and partly representative 
of other educational bodies. The College Calendars 
of 1888 showed that 580 students, of whom 266 had 
matriculated, were attending these three colleges. 

The apex of the educational pyramid is formed by 
the New Zealand University, founded in 1870, and 
empowered by Koyal Charter, in 1876, to grant degrees 
in all branches of knowledge. I find that little is 



1*50 NEW ZEALAND. 

known of this promising institution in England, so will 
give a few details. The Constitution of this University, 
its courses of study, examinations, and council, are all 
modelled upon those of the University of London. Its 
governing body, the Senate, composed of some of the 
most eminent men in the colony, meets annually in 
some city where higher education is cultivated ; and are 
cordially welcomed wherever the reunion is held. 
Every meeting of the Senate is followed by an in- 
creased impetus given to the educational resources of 
the district where it has met. 

All degrees of this university are open to women as 
well as men. The special adaptation of its rules to 
colonial requirements is exemplified by the following 
admirable provision for wage-earning students made 
in chapter vi. of the Statutes : " Any student who is 
engaged in acquiring a profession or trade, or earning a 
livelihood, may keep terms without attending lectures." 
. . . He " must have his name on the books of an affili- 
ated college, and must pass its annual examination 
in order to keep the terms of the year." Thus, a clerk, 
mechanic, or agriculturist may study at home, pass his 
various examinations, and obtain his degree, while still 
all the while earning his bread. The whole course of 
study at any of the affiliated colleges, including exami- 
nation fees and the cost of books, for the degree of B. A. 
need not exceed 30. And further, by an excellent 
system of free scholarships from the Primary to the 
Secondary schools, and from these to the University 
Colleges, a youth of talent and industry may obtain a 
complete education, finishing with a University degree, 
at little, if any, expense to his friends. 

Most of the lectures at these three affiliated colleges 
are delivered in the evenings, in order to suit the 
convenience of those students who are employed 
throughout the day. The Professors are carefully 
selected from the best university men at Home, and the 
lectures, therefore, are of a high order of merit. The 
fees for the lectures are very moderate, averaging ten to 
fifteen shillings per term. 



PUBLIC WORKS AND INSTITUTIONS. 161 

As it would unduly extend this section to enumerate 
the staff of all the three colleges, I will briefly mention 
some details of the college best known to me and latest 
established, namely, Auckland University College, 
opened in 1883. Forty applications from some of the 
best scientific and literary graduates of English univer- 
sities were sent in to the Agent-General for New Zealand 
for the four professorships then established. Four very 
superior men were chosen : Professors F. G. Walker 
(mathematics and physics) ; F. D. Brown (chemistry 
and experimental physics) ; F. G. Tucker, senior 
classic and Fellow (classics and English) ; and A. P. 
W. Thomas (biology and geology). Of these Professor 
Walker was drowned shortly after his arrival, to the 
great regret of those who knew him ; and Professor 
W. S. Aldis, who was senior wrangler of his year at 
Cambridge, was appointed to the chair, which he still 
occupies with much acceptability. After some years 
Professor Tucker removed to Melbourne University, 
and was succeeded by Dr. H. Macaulay Posnett, 
LL.D., Senior Moderator in Classics, Trinity College, 
Dublin, &c., author of " Comparative Literature." 

On the first opening of this College, the newspapers 
of Auckland eulogised it, but when the depression 
began to be felt, the institution was denounced as 
being an expensive and premature luxury. A life of 
six useful years, however, has amply justified its 
foundation, for the following, among other benefits, 
have been conferred upon the Auckland provincial 
district : the standard of education, training, and 
qualification of public school teachers has' been 
distinctly raised ; a technical school has been founded ; 
frequent " popular science " lectures on subjects useful 
as well as interesting have been delivered by the 
professors ; a body of students numbering 107 (68 
men and 39 women) in the year 1887 has been 
formed, who are not only fostering a love for learning 
and research of all kinds, but diffusing " sweetness and 
light " through that utilitarian community ; and 
lastly, eminent men of the very highest qualifications 

M 



162 NEW ZEALAND. 

for teaching their respective subjects have been attracted 
to New Zealand. 

As an incentive to Technical Education, hitherto very 
deficient in the colony, the council of this college have 
lately opened a School of Applied Science, wherein 
instruction during a three years' course is given in the 
following subjects : mathematics, astronomy, chemistry, 
drawing, surveying, mechanics, architecture, metallurgy, 
mining, engineering, and mine surveying. I hail this 
new addition to the advantages of the college as a great 
boon to the Auckland district, where the 'mines of gold 
and other minerals need a more scientific and economical 
mode of development than they have hitherto had. 
Professors Black, of Otago University, and Brown, of 
Auckland University College, have awakened the public 
mind to the immense importance of scientific mining 
and assaying, and all the science professors of the three 
colleges have continually advocated the teaching of 
science in schools, especially as applicable to the wants 
of colonial life. 

In connection with the Canterbury College which, 
by the way, has just lost one of its chief ornaments, 
Proi'essor Sir Julius von Haast a very useful institution, 
called the School of Agriculture, was opened in 1880 at 
Lincoln, near Christchurch. The director is Mr. W. E. 
Ivey, who, with a competent staff of assistants, gives a 
practical and scientific training to those who intend to 
make farming their livelihood, upon a large farm of 660 
acres, containing soils of all kinds and conditions. The 
exhibits of wool and cereals sent from this farm to the 
Indian and Colonial Exhibition of 1886, were most 
favourably reported on by the judges. It is probable 
that young Englishmen who choose New Zealand as a 
place for settlement would get a better idea of the actual 
peculiarities of New Zealand farming by spending a 
year or eighteen months at this very excellent School 
of Agriculture than they would by this same length of 
time passed at Hollesley Bay, Suffolk, well planned 
though that institution seems to be. The special 
advantage offered by the Otago University is the 



PUBLIC WORKS AND INSTITUTIONS. 163 

Medical and Surgical school their Council have formed. 
There is an operating theatre in Dunedin Hospital, a 
dissecting room, a well-appointed chemical laboratory, 
and the Museum of the province is under the Council's 
management. The course of study at this school, as 
will be gathered from the remark on p. 7, does not 
qualify for the degree of M,D. of the New Zealand 
University, but it is recognized by the Eoyal Colleges 
of Physicians and Surgeons of England. There can be 
no doubt that university education is rapidly becoming 
popular in New Zealand. 

The New Zealand Institute, established at Wellington 
in 1868, is the central scientific association of the 
colony. It consists of seven local Scientific Institutes, 
having their meetings in Auckland, Napier, Wellington, 
Nelson, Christchureh, Dunedin, and Invercargill re- 
spectively. In 1887 the membership of the New 
Zealand Institute was 1156. The governors of the 
Central Institute are elected annually from the councils 
of these local Institutes, and the permanent secretary is 
Sir James Hector, K.C.M.G., director of the Geological 
Survey and of the Colonial Museum. The objects of 
the New Zealand Institute are the encouragement of the 
pursuit of science in general ; the investigation of the 
geology, fauna, and flora of the whole colony ; and the 
collection of the history, traditions, and antiquities of 
the Maori race. It seeks to effect these objects by 
collecting, recording, and criticizing papers and essays 
upon any of these subjects at the winter meetings ; by 
the annual publication of a volume of Transactions, 
which it exchanges with other similar institutions all 
over the world ; and by grants of money to scientific 
and literary workers in various departments. Already 
the institute has published twenty-one volumes of 
Transactions, which are of considerable value to the 
scientific world, the Government assisting in the ex- 
pense of production by an annual grant of 500. 

The great value in the education of the public attaching 
to Free Libraries is wisely recognized by the Government 
by an annual parliamentary grant in aid of their funds ; 

M 2 



164 NEW ZEALAND. 

this sum being distributed in proportion to the income 
derived by the libraries from other sources, generally 
voluntary ; the sole condition qualifying a library to 
share in the grant being that the library must be open 
free to the public. In 1887 three hundred and sixty-one 
libraries, distributed through all parts of New Zealand, 
shared in the grant. But the stern hand of retrenchment 
has swept this aid away for a time. 

In connection with the education of the public, we 
must not forget that powerful agent, the newspaper 
Press of New Zealand. There are in the colony more 
than twenty daily and a large mmiber of weekly news- 
papers, which circulate to the remotest parts of the 
country. Every little town has its daily or tri-weekly 
newspaper. On the whole the Press of New Zealand is 
creditable to its conductors, the chief blemish of the 
average New Zealand newspaper consisting in vitupera- 
tive attacks upon the other towns or districts in the 
colony. When a Dunedin paper calls Wellington " the 
windy, shaky, metropolis of matchboxes/' one cannot 
help laughing at the grain of truth contained in the 
farcical epigram ; but it is not fair to the Wellingtonians 
to hurt their feelings thn, for they are not responsible 
for either storm or earthquake, and their wooden houses 
are incontestably the safest and best for these conditions 
of habitation. An Auckland resident, again, cannot feel 
kindly to the Wairarapa people when their newspaper, 
the Star, apropos of the great disappointment felt in 
Auckland at the gist of the parliamentary committee's 
Eeport on the North Island Trunk Eailway, which was 
that the Central instead of the Taranaki route must be 
adopted, writes : " Visions of wrong inflicted upon the 
people of that warm and unhappy region of volcanic 
debris began to dance in the bosoms of her devoted banks, 
and more devoted insurance companies, embalmed by 
faithful directors of money rings, South Sea kidnappers, 
Pakeha-Maoris, native land-sharks, and ladies of the 
period enshrined in matchbox hotels and suicidal 
boarding-houses, surrounded by speculative villas that, 
like Mounts Etna and Vesuvius start occasionally into 



PUBLIC WORKS AND INSTITUTIONS. 165 

flame. The seoriacity of Mount Eden would make the 
city lead a dreamy somnolent kind of existence, were it 
not that the weight of its iniquities, lying heavily across 
its chest, causes its slumbers now and then to be dis- 
turbed by frightful nightmares." 

I have numerous other specimens of journalistic ob- 
jurgation, but refrain from quoting any more, for their 
local flavour would scarcely be appreciated by Home 
readers. On the other hand the leading newspapers of 
the colony display in their editorial articles a bright 
intelligence and sturdy common sense in commenting 
upon British and foreign politics such as are not always 
found in the organs of the extreme political parties at 
home. The Home Rule question, for instance, is fairly 
and independently discussed ; a loyal tone pervades all 
references to our august Sovereign, and to the Royal 
Family; while the excessive expenditures on Court 
sinecures are unsparingly assailed. Isolated passages 
in some newspapers would lead the casual reader to 
imagine that there was a republican feeling in New 
Zealand, but the whole spirit of the press displays a 
steady loyalty to the existing British Constitution, and 
a love for the dear Old Country. Interesting letters 
from London, from the United States, and from special 
correspondents in the Pacific Islands convey to New 
Zealanders accurate and condensed information of what 
is passing all over the world. The serial tale is now 
a regular part of the eight-page daily ; and the Saturday 
supplements of newspapers like the New Zealand 
Herald and Evening Star of Auckland contain capital 
selections of scientific, critical, and light reading. 



3. Hospitals, Refuges, Asylums, and Poor Relief. 

There is no such complete poor-law in New Zealand 
as we have in England : there are no workhouses or 
casual wards. Pauperism, and the formation of a 
pauper class, is greatly dreaded. But there is a system 
of outdoor relief, in the shape of a weekly dole of 



166 NEW ZEALAND. 

food given to necessitous persons and their families, 
until employment is found for the bread-winner, or the 
whole family leave the colony. Money is seldom 
given, except for house-rent. The Eelieving Officer 
was until lately a Government official, now he is 
appointed by the " Hospital and Charitable Aid Board " 
for the City or District. The local Benevolent 
Societies co-operate with the board's officers in the 
distribution of relief, so as to prevent imposture and 
deception. There is urgent need now for a tramp or 
casual shed in each of the four large cities of the 
colony ; but long distant be the day when a workhouse 
shall be a necessity for New Zealand ! 

The Government have hitherto given 1 for 1 on 
the sum raised by the contributions made from the 
rates and by voluntary subscriptions towards the 
maintenance of the outdoor relief fund, the benevolent 
asylums or refuges, and the public hospitals, all of which 
are now under the control of this new " Hospital and 
Charitable Aid Board." Hundreds of men, women, and 
children avail themselves of the temporary but timely 
relief thus given ; but though there are some " old 
soldiers," who hang along for years on charity, there is 
no inert mass of helpless, hopeless, pauperism as yet in 
New Zealand, and I devoutly hope there never will be. 
The eight benevolent asylums during the year 1887 
maintained 972 persons, and the amount expended on 
them was 32,183. The six orphanages and four 
industrial schools during the same year contained 270 
inmates, on whom 7678 were expended. The In- 
stitution for the Deaf and Dumb is a private one, 
well conducted. 

The Hospitals of New Zealand are now placed under 
the management of the " Hospital and Charitable Aid 
Boards." They are conducted in different ways in 
different parts of the colony, some not altogether satis- 
factory, judging by the frequent changes in the medical 
and surgical staff, and the numerous attacks in the press. 
In most of them payment by patients is compulsory 
generally 12s. per week for a bed in the general wards, 



PUBLIC WORKS AND INSTITUTIONS. 167 

or one guinea in a private ward ; but if absolute want of 
means can be proved to the hospital board, the payment 
is remitted. There are thirty-seven hospitals in the 
colony, in which beds are provided for 870 male and 333 
female patients. A dispensary, or out-patient depart- 
ment, is usually attached to each hospital, where both 
advice and medicine may be obtained gratis. The total 
receipts of these hospitals during 1887 amounted to 
77,668, and the expenditure upon them to 75,313. 
The number of patients admitted into them during this 
year was 6681. 

In the Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and 
Dunedin hospitals the nursing is first-class, and 
probationers are trained under the supervision of a 
lady-superintendent. Our matron, Miss Crisp (now 
Mrs. Dr. Bond), in Auckland, was a distinguished 
army nurse, who had medals for service in Egypt and 
in South Africa, and was presented with the new Order 
of Merit devised by the Queen for nurses by the 
Governor, Sir W. F. D. Jervois, at a distinguished 
gathering at Government House, Auckland. The 
ventilation and internal arrangements are usually 
good in these hospitals. The smaller country and 
town hospitals are attended by one medical officer, 
who calls in his colleagues' aid when deemed advisable. 
In the larger hospitals there is one resident doctor, or 
two, and an honorary staff. If the best practitioners of 
the city do not join the staff (as is sometimes stated) it 
is because the relative duties and departments of the 
medical staff and committee of management are not as 
clearly defined as in England. This matter will in 
due time right itself, however. The recent legislation 
respecting hospitals has been rather hasty and crude ; 
for it is not wise suddenly to throw their support upon 
the rates, and thereby discourage voluntary subscrip- 
tions, which in many cases formed the chief source of 
income. Some years' trial is necessary before we can 
pronounce the change beneficial or injurious to the 
community at large. 

There are seven public Lunatic Asylums and one 



168 NEW ZEALAND^ 

Private Licensed Asylum in the colony. At the end of 
1887 these contained 1695 inmates (1053 males and 
642 females). During that year 415 lunatics had been 
admitted, 226 discharged, and 101 had died. In 
chapter xii. I have demonstrated that mental diseases 
are not so prevalent in New Zealand as in some other 
Australasian colonies. 

One Home for Inebriates, under private management, 
exists in the colony. 

4. Gaols and Police. 

Justice is administered in New Zealand by a 
Supreme Court, consisting of a Chief Justice and four 
Puisne Judges ; by District Judges ; stipendiary Eesi- 
dent Magistrates, and unpaid Justices of the Peace, 
proceedings being in most respects the same as in 
England. In addition there are some procedures not 
known in England, such as the coroner's inquest on a 
fire when arson is suspected. 

In criminal statistics it is gratifying to state that for 
seven years past there has been a gradual decrease in 
the proportion of charges and convictions to the whole 
population. It has been remarked that this decrease 
has been simultaneous with a steady diminution in the 
consumption of spirits and beer per head during the 
same period. The percentage of convictions to 
charges is somewhat lower than in England and 
Wales. 

There is a gaol in each provincial district, generally 
situated in the capital of that district. The prison 
management, fare, and discipline are good ; good con- 
duct marks are given, and the health of the prisoners 
is well maintained by the work they do for the Govern- 
ment on roads, streets, parks, &c. Free access to the 
prisons is permitted to all ministers of religion who 
desire to visit the prisoners. Careful periodical in- 
spections of the prisons are made both by the Inspector- 
general of Prisons and by the Visiting Justices. Since 
the year 1881 the number of prisoners incarcerated in 



PUBLIC WORKS AND INSTITUTIONS. 169 

the gaols throughout the colony has been about 5500 
in the year ; the daily average was about 600. 

The police force is a centralized body under the 
direct control of the Minister of Justice. It is now 
(1889) under the retrenchment scheme, cut down to 
500 of all ranks, a proportion of one to 1220 of the 
population of New Zealand, which is a contrast to the 
one to 571 of Great Britain. For intelligence, sobriety, 
and common sense the New Zealand police officer sur- 
passes his British confrere. The Superintendents of 
Police have to perform in many criminal cases the 
difficult and delicate duty of prosecution. The Govern- 
ment, therefore, every two or three years changes their 
districts, so as to keep them as free as possible from 
local bias. 

The " First Offenders' Probation Act, 1886," whereby 
a person of previously good character, convicted of a 
first offence, may be liberated by the judge, on con- 
dition of a surety, approved by him, undertaking to 
keep the accused under surveillance for a certain 
period, has worked so well that I observe a similar Act 
has been recently passed by our Imperial Parliament. 

The Eegistrar-general, in his report on the census of 
1886, gives the number of persons living on charity 
and at the expense of the State as 4202, including 599 
belonging to the " criminal class." 

The temperance societies of all sorts and descriptions 
are strong in numbers and energy in New Zealand, and 
influence many votes in the parliamentary elections. 
The principle of local option is now carried into prac- 
tice in New Zealand, and has proved on the whole 
beneficial to the community. 



5. Public Works. 

These comprise roads, railways, bridges, docks, 
harbours, Government buildings, and other works of a 
permanent value to the colony, the expenditure on 
which since 1870 has amounted to 24,669,000. 



170 NEW ZEALAND. 

-When New Zealanders are twitted with their large 
public debt of thirty-five millions, they can point to 
saleable and more or less reproductive assets, in the 
shape of 1770 miles of railway ; 4746 miles of tele- 
graph ; 8478 miles of road ; 791 bridges ; lighthouses, 
harbour works, and harbour defences to the value of 
826,000; public buildings valued at 1,652,000; 
waterworks on the gold-fields, 510,000 ; and land 
purchased from the natives to the value of 1,145,000. 
The surface of New Zealand being unfavourable to 
railway construction, it is creditable to the engineers 
who laid out the lines that both the original cost of 
making the railways has been less than than that of 
the cheapest railways of other British colonies (Cape 
Colony, for instance) by 1242 per mile; and that the 
cost of maintenance per mile (141) is 2 less than in 
Cape Colony, 9 less than in Victoria, and 9 less 
than in New South Wales. On the 31st March, 1888, 
the net earnings of all the railways in New Zealand, 
some lines paying better than others, amounted to a 
sum equal to 2 6s. per cent, upon their original cost. 

The gauge in New Zealand is narrow 3 ft. 6 in. 
as being less costly and better suited to the sharp 
curves and narrow passes through which the railways 
have to run in many parts the Kimutaka Pass and 
the Manawatu Gorge, for example than the English 
standard gauge. The classes are two : 1st, the fare by 
which averages 2d. per mile ; and 2nd, where the fare 
is tyd. The carriages are built on the American 
pattern, with seats on each side and a passage down the 
centre, leading to a platform at each end of the car. 
There is provision for ventilation but not for heating. 
The new "bogie" carriages on the long main lines 
are quite comfortable. The ordinary speed, including 
stoppages, is fifteen miles an hour, and for " expresses " 
from twenty to twenty-five miles an hour. 

The harbours and docks of the colony have been built 
out of loans negotiated in London on the security of the 
colonial Government, but borrowed by Harbour Boards 
and Dock Companies, over which the Government have 



' PUBLIC WORKS AND INSTITUTIONS. 171 

a control by their auditors. These works are therefore 
" public " not " private," and are maintained by dues, 
rates, and licenses levied by the several corporations to 
which they belong. Complaints are made by shipping 
and steamer companies of the high harbour and dock 
dues, but they are in reality reasonable when the great 
cost of construction and maintenance is considered. 
When trade . is prosperous, the harbour and dock bonds 
are as good as any investment in New Zealand. When 
there is a lull in outside sea-going commerce, the smaller 
harbour boards find it difficult to pay the usual interest 
and keep up the sinking fund. Hence disputes arise ; 
but the colonial Government invariably keep them to 
the strict letter of the law. The breakwaters at Timaru 
and at New Plymouth are now effective, but have 
been in their time " white elephants," sinking thousands 
of pounds in the boisterous sea. Eventually, however, 
engineering science triumphs over nature in all these 
seaports. 

By their perseverance and liberal expenditure the 
Auckland Harbour Board possess as part of the 
admirable facilities of the Waitemata, the largest 
graving-dock (the ' Calliope,' described on p. 61) south 
of the line. Lyttelton, the port of Christchurch, with 
which a tunnel connects it, has a deep-water harbour, 
with quays illuminated by the electric light, large wool 
stores near the wharves, and a graving-dock 450 feet 
long by 82 feet wide. During the wheat-shipment 
season Lyttelton wharves are one of the sights best 
worth seeing in New Zealand. The Otago Harbour 
Board have so improved and deepened the tortuous 
channel of the estuary leading from Port Chalmers to 
Dunedin that now the Union Company's steamers of 
2000 tons can safely come up to the wharves of the 
city. The harbour of Wellington, the capital, is well 
supplied with all the most modern appliances. 

Too much space would be occupied were I to 
describe the principal bridges in the colony, some of 
which, made of iron manufactured in England, such as 
that of Wanganui, Manawatu, and the Clutha and 



172 NEW ZEALAND. 

Waitaki rivers. The ambition of New Zealand now is 
directed to manufacture in the colony and put together 
all her own iron structures, bridges, locomotives, cranes, 
fencing, &c., from the iron or steel made from the native 
iron-sand, chrome iron ore, or hematite. 

The lighthouses of New Zealand belong to the 
Government, and are efficient, but are not so powerful or 
elaborate as in the old country ; nor are they sufficiently 
numerous for so dangerous a coast. As the Government 
can afford it their number will be increased. 

The defences of New Zealand have been skilfully 
carried out under the able superintendence of the late 
Governor, Sir W. F. D. Jervois, G.C.M.G., and the 
colony contributes its share to the Australasian Defence 
Squadron. 

The Government buildings are nearly all creditable 
to the colony and suitable for their purposes. 



6. Post Office, Telegraphs, and Telephones. 

New Zealand surpasses the rest of the Australasian 
colonies, taking into account the mountainous nature of 
the country and the large cost of sea-borne mails, in the 
convenience, speed, and frequency, of both internal and 
external postal communications. Though the rates of 
postage are, generally speaking, double the English 
rates, there are more letters, and newspapers, and money 
orders per head of the population sent through the post 
than in Great Britain. Outside of a city or borough one 
needs a two-penny stamp for a letter weighing half an 
ounce ; the same letter would go to the Fijis, Norfolk 
Island, or any part of Australia for the same stamp. 
The postage for the same weight to England, Europe, or 
America is sixpence. Yet the great mental activity and 
home attachments of the New Zealanders is shown by 
the fact that no less than 39,377,774 letters and over 
15,380,000 newspapers were posted or delivered during 
1887, at and by the 1118 post-offices then open. The 
number of inland mail services was 600, and of tele- 



PUBLIC WORKS AND INSTITUTIONS. 173 

phone bureaux 33, to which there were 2042 sub- 
scribers. During the same year, 159,597 money orders 
were issued, for an aggregate sum of 555,744. All the 
facilities of postal notes, post-cards, &c., of the British 
post-office are provided, with the convenient addition of 
" delayed telegrams," which are sent off at any time the 
wire is unoccupied, at the rate of 6d. for twenty words ; 
and of telegraphic money orders, which are only this year 
(1889) being experimentally tried in this country. A 
foreign parcels post has recently been established, the 
rates being Is. 6d. for 2 Ibs. and 9d. per Ib. up to 11 Ibs. 
the limit of weight. The high rates of foreign postage, 
parcels post, &c., are due to the heavy subsidies paid to 
the steamship lines via America and Cape Horn which 
carry the ocean mails. A change is impending in these 
arrangements. 

Over the 4746 miles of telegraph line 1,835,394 
messages were sent in 1887. The telephone is much 
used in all the business centres of New Zealand, the 
Government has the monopoly, but has fixed the 
rates at a much more moderate figure than have the 
companies in England. One is charged 10 per 
telephone for the first year, if within the half-mile 
radius of the central bureau, and 8 for every year 
afterwards. Doctors, chemists, bankers, dentists all 
use them, and merchants and brokers often have a 
second telephone at their residences. 

The post-office savings banks, of which there were 
283 in 1887, do a very large business, which varies 
sympathetically with the fluctuations of trade and 
commerce throughout the colony. The tide of returning 
prosperity is accurately shown, therefore, by the facts 
that (a) while the withdrawals from these banks 
exceeded the deposits by 87,881 in the year 1886, in 
the following year 1887 the deposits exceeded the 
withdrawals by 129,741 ; and (b) in all the savings 
banks of the colony, including the seven non-official, 
273,995 more were deposited during 1887 than during 
1886. 



174 NEW ZEALAND. 



7. Government Life Assurance. 

This Department, opened in 1870, was the first of the 
kind established in any British colony. Its success has 
amply justified the expectations of its founders, the 
chief of whom, if I mistake not, was Sir J. Vogel. By 
means of conveniently situated offices in every town, 
by courteous managers, the most skilful medical referees 
obtainable, and a host of energetic canvassers, this 
department, though keenly competed with by the 
Australian Mutual Provident Association, does a 
business with which our own Government life assurance 
and annuity (post-office) business is a mere bagatelle. 
The Department offers the exceptional advantages of 
1st. Inviolable security to the assured, the payment of 
every policy being guaranteed by the colony under a 
special Act of Parliament ; 2nd. The division of the 
entire profits among the policy-holders alone. In the 
first ten years of its existence (1870-1880) these profits 
amounted to 77,595. 3rd. There are no restrictions 
on the policy as to trade, occupation, or travelling to 
other countries ; each policy also being unchallengeable 
after five years' standing. 4th. The premiums are very 
low; the premiums with profits being as low as the 
non-participating rates in other offices. The very low 
death-rate in New Zealand in 1887 only 10 '29 for 
every 1000 inhabitants, as compared with 18 '78 per 
1000 for England and Wales enables the department 
to do a safe remunerative business, while keeping the 
rates of premiums low. Despite the competition of seven 
other life assurance companies doing business in the 
colony, the Government assurance holds its own well, 
though the first to suffer in " hard times " by the lapse 
of old policies and the slackening-off of new insurances. 
During the year 1888 the new policies issued were 
2957, insuring an amount of 785,692. The total 
number of policies in force are now 26,168, insuring 
over 7,700,000. The accumulated funds amount to 
1,452,478. I have been thus minute in describing 



PUBLIC WORKS AND INSTITUTIONS. 175 

this Department because it is of great importance to 
the intending settler to know that he can cheaply, 
conveniently, and securely insure his life in New 
Zealand ; and it is interesting to my medical colleagues 
to see demonstrated by these hard facts the healthiness 
of New Zealanders and hence of their climate. 



8. Other Government Departments. 

1. The Public Trust Office, established in 1872. In 
New Zealand many persons die by accident or are 
drowned at sea, or in one way or another meet with 
a sudden death, leaving no will, nor any relatives in the 
colony. Sometimes their real names are unknown. In 
many such sad events, property was left by the 
deceased, and its rightful disposal was a matter of much 
difficulty. To meet this difficulty the Government 
opened this Office, appointing a Public Trustee and 
Executor, with a Deputy in each provincial district, 
whose duty it should be to collect all the property of the 
deceased, and distribute it to the legitimate claimants ; 
to discharge all just debts; and to carry out the 
provisions of the will, where there was one left by the 
deceased. He may also administer trusts under deeds 
and settlements, and may manage the estate of a 
lunatic. All investments of money are under the 
control of a Board, consisting of the Colonial Treasurer, 
the Attorney-general, the Controller and Auditor- 
general, and the Public Trustee. The Government are 
directly responsible for the honest fulfilment of the 
trusts, and the Public and Deputy Trustees have 
hitherto given satisfaction. That there is need for such 
an office is proved by the fact that in 1885 the cash 
receipts of the Public Trustee amounted to 195,000. 
The expense of management is covered by a tax of five 
per cent, upon the property of deceased persons. 

2. The Assignees in Bankruptcy are gentlemen of 
honesty, ability, and business experience, appointed in 
each large town of the colony to carry out the provisions 



176 NEW ZEALAND. 

of the Bankruptcy Acts. In fact, they perform the 
duties assigned at home to the Kegistrars in Bankruptcy, 
and have judicial as well as administrative powers. So 
far as my experience (as a creditor only) goes in the 
Auckland district, they perform their difficult and 
delicate duties with an integrity, firmness, and diligence 
which leave nothing to be desired. 

3. Sheep and Babbit Inspectors. The former class 
of officials have to see that no epizootic disease is 
allowed to spread ; that the sheep are properly dipped 
in some disinfectant when the " scab " breaks out, and 
so on. The latter class of inspectors do their very best 
to enforce the law relative to fencing (so as to keep 
the rabbits from spreading from one farm to another), 
and to extermination. The extent of the rabbit pest in 
the Middle Island has necessitated the appointment of 
these officers. 

All the above branches of the Government have a 
special interest for immigrants. There are numerous 
other offices which it is not necessary to introduce into 
a small volume like this. 



9. Friendly Societies 

Are numerous, and called by as diverse names as in the 
old country. In 1887 they numbered 290 "lodges" 
and thirty central associations. The number of 
members then was 21,679, and the value of their 
property was 335,675. All these societies must be 
registered, and must submit their accounts to the Public 
Auditor and Valuer annually. Their weekly allow- 
ances to sick and infirm members are more liberal than 
in the old country , commensurate with the higher 
rate of contributions. 

10. Building Societies. 

On the 1st of January, 1887, there were forty-eight 
land, building, and investment societies in the colony. 
The number of members was 4480. The rules and 



PUBLIC WORKS AND INSTITUTIONS. 177 

accounts are subject to revision by Government officials. 
The shares pay a dividend of from eight to ten per cent, 
to investing members. 



11. Sailors' Homes and Rests. 

It is to be regretted that these useful institutions are 
not so numerous in New Zealand as could be wished ; 
but what do exist are very successful. At Lyttelton 
there is a neat Sailors' Home which cost 2500, and is 
well managed by a retired captain. In Auckland, as 
described on p. 65, there is a spacious and handsome 
building for sailors, in which the Sailors' Eest in- 
augurated by Bishop Cowie in 1881 is blended with 
the ordinary work of a Sailors' Home. 

Sailors' Rests, that is, free reading and refreshment 
rooms for the use of those who follow the sea, are to be 
found at Auckland, "Wellington, Port Chalmers, and 
Dunedin, managed by committees of ladies and gentle- 
men warmly interested in Christian and philanthropic 
work. 



N 



178 KSW ZEALAND. 



CHAPTER X. 

JRODUCTIOKS AND INDUSTRIES, 

Natural products erolve certain Industries The growth of fifty 
yeara Exports now exceed Imports in value Statistics of 
production of Wool Meat The frozen meat trade Skins and 
hid^s Dairy produce Wheat Timber Kauri gum Gold 
and silver Other metals Building stone Coal Flax, fungus, 
tan-bark, petroleum, train oil Minor Industries Eeasons for 
tie Protective Tariff Policy of Bonuses for new Cultures and 
Industries -The working-man of New Zealand and the Chinese 
W. N. Blair on Labour and Capital Patent law Inven- 
tiveness of New Zealanders Humane legislation for women 
and children in factories. 

FOR a colony which will celebrate its first jubilee in 
1890, New Zealand has developed a wonderful variety 
of industries and manufactures. These are very nearly 
all based upon indigenous raw products. There can be 
little question that the grand resources of the colony in 
climate, water, coal, timber, iron, and other minerals fit 
her to become a manufacturing as well as an agricul- 
tural country. Let but a great market be open to her 
outside, and let her own children wear and use her own 
fabrics and implements, and Zealandia need no longer 
be " pap-fed " by Government bonuses, or bolstered up 
by excessively high import duties. The 1770 miles of 
rail open on March 31, 1888, and the yearly increasing 
coastal steamer facilities are also promoting the indus- 
tries of the colony by cheaper and quicker communica- 
tions. All real progress in a new country must depend 
upon its natural resources, its geographical position, and 
the intelligence of its people. The discovery of gold 
has greatly accelerated the colonization of New Zealand, 
and given rise to mills, smelting works, assay labora- 



PRODUCTIONS AND INDUSTRIES. 179 

tories, and so on. The existence of vast deposits of iron- 
sand on the coast together with coal in over a hundred 
places in the interior has given rise to iron-works at 
Onehunga and Taranaki. The profusion of sheep and 
cattle have made meat so cheap that meat freezing and 
preserving works have sprung up in several places. 
Similarly, fish in prodigal abundance, and fruit in 
quantities which are too great for home consumption in 
the fresh state, have given rise to " canneries," and jam 
factories. The discovery of capital tan -bark trees 
(PliyllodaduB and others) has coincided with the ex- 
traordinary cheapness of skins and hides to evolve 
tanneries, where leather is now produced in quality 
almost equal to the English article. Political econo- 
mists tell us that that country has a prosperous trade 
where the exports exceed in value the imports. Upon 
this theory the balance of trade has been against New 
Zealand's prosperity up to a recent period. But a turn 
in the tide has come ; for, whereas in the year 1882 the 
declared value of all the imports was 8,609,270 and 
that of the exports only 6,658,000, in the year 1887 
the value of imports had sunk to 6,245,515, while that 
of exports had risen to 6,866,169. Of all this trade at 
least seventy per cent, was carried on with Great Britain. 
In this chapter I have given a brief and condensed 
statement of the principal natural products, industries, 
and manufactures of New Zealand at the present time. 
I have taken the statistics of 1886 as the basis, but 
where reliable figures of later date have been issued by 
the Government I shall use them. While I do not 
profess to give a complete list of all the products and 
manufactures of the colony, I think the English reader 
will see even in this short compendium of the amount 
and variety of the business done in New Zealand enough 
to astonish him. 

1. Wool. 

This is still the most important raw product of this 
colony, the value of the wool exported being treble 
that of the gold produced. Although individual sheep 

N 2 



180 NEW ZEALAND. 

farmers have in many cases lost their capital in this 
pursuit, from inexperience, bad management, diseases 
among the sheep, disastrous winters, or general "ill- 
luck," yet wool-growing has proved on the whole to 
be a great success in New Zealand. Not only have the 
sheep multiplied ninefold in the twenty-one years, the 
breed being continually improved by fresh importations 
of Southdown, Merino, and Saxon rams, but also the 
weight of the fleece has doubled, while the average 
weight of a " carcase " in New Zealand is as much as 
68 Ibs., that of an Australian sheep being 50 Ibs. ; of a 
River Plate sheep 37 Ibs ; and a sheep from the Cape 
Colony only 22 Ibs. 

New Zealand now provides the European market 
with exactly the two classes of wool required by the 
manufacturer combing wool for worsted goods, bom- 
bazines, camlets, &c ; and clothing wool for broadcloth, 
tweed, &c. The Lincoln, Leicester, Cotswold, and 
Romney Marsh breeds of long-staple-woolled sheep 
and the Southdown, Shropshire, and Spanish Merino 
varieties of short-staple-woolled sheep thrive better 
than in their European habitats because of the shorter 
and milder winters. The Merino sheep seems to adapt 
itself to every climate. The peculiar excellence of its 
wool consists in the fineness and number of serrations 
in each hair, whereby it is enabled to "felt well," as it 
is termed. Thus, under the microscope one finds 2720 
serrations in one inch of a saxon Merino hair, but only 
2000 in the same length of a Southdown, and 1850 in 
that of a Leicester sheep. 

In 1887 from a little over fifteen million sheep the 
wool clipped amounted to 90,825,937 Ibs. Of this 
amount over two millions were used within the colony 
in manufacture of blankets, tweeds, felt, &c; and 
88,824,382 Ibs., valued at 3,321,074, were exported, 
this being a large advance in value over that of the 
previous year. The market price of wool fluctuates 
very much, for New Zealand competes at an immense 
distance with wool-producing countries nearer the 
home market; but let it be noted that a low price 



PRODUCTIONS AND INDUSTRIES. 181 

in London quotations of New Zealand wools does not 
indicate a quality inferior to the usual average produced 
in the colony. Excellent blankets, tweeds, worsted 
goods, stockings, caps, &c., are now manufactured from 
native wool at Onehunga, Petone, Kaiapoi, and Moss- 
giel. So pure and honestly made are the woollen goods 
of New Zealand that a French manufacturer, visiting 
the Sydney Exhibition, after critically examining the 
tweed from our colony and finding to his astonishment 
that it was " all wool," exclaimed, " Well, these New 
Zealanders are fools ! " 

2. Meat. 

A large and ever-increasing trade in frozen and 
tinned meat (mutton, beef, lamb, tongues, kidneys, &c.) 
has grown up since 1882 between New Zealand and 
Great Britain. The great distance between the two 
countries alone prevents a "live-stock" trade from 
taking the place of "dead meat" business. The im- 
portance to Great Britain of this New Zealand meat, of 
such excellent quality and sold so cheaply to the 
actual consumer in this country (4d. or 5d. per Ib.) 
cannot be over-estimated. Our Home population, even 
after allowing for deaths and emigration, is increasing 
at the prodigious rate of nearly 1000 a day, while the 
live stock raised in our own country is not increasing. 
By the year 1896, Mulhall calculates, our population 
will have risen to forty-three millions, while the country 
itself will be producing only enough meat to feed its 
inhabitants for Jive months in the year. Already we 
import 600,000 tons of meat from North and South 
America. But the colony of New Zealand is our 
latest and best sheep-farm. Even seven years since 
New Zealand ranked second among the Australasian 
colonies as a sheep-breeding country; and its juicy 
meat brought twopence a pound more in the English 
market than the lean, tough, and flavourless mutton of 
Australia. The meat-freezing machinery now works 
to perfection; the voyage from port to port is brought 



182 NEW ZEALAND. 

within forty days by direct steamer ; and we can now 
have the delicious grass-fed mutton, beef, and lamb of 
New Zealand, with the flavour unimpaired, placed on our 
tables, at a price fifty per cent, less than that of English 
grown meat, yet with a fair profit to the colonial sheep 
farmer. This kind of freight is now, I am told, the 
most remunerative of any to the steamship companies, 
The Tainui of the Shaw, Savill, and Albion line, 
made the voyage from Lyttelton to Plymouth in the 
autumn of 1888 in 38 days and 17 hours, loaded with 
30,000 frozen sheep, which she landed in good condi- 
tion at Eio de Janeiro and at London. The New Zea- 
land Shipping Company's steamers have done the same 
trip in 36 days. From the year 1882, when 15,244 cwt. 
of frozen meat, valued at 19,339, were exported to 
England, much of it being spoiled through inexperience 
in the various processes, the trade has rapidly in- 
creased, so that in 1887 no less than 402,107 cwt. of 
meats of the value of 455,870, were exported from 
New Zealand. In that year there were forty-four meat- 
freezing and preserving works in the colony, repre- 
senting capital sunk in buildings and machinery to the 
amount of 442,962. 

The recent amalgamation and consequent closing of 
the smaller works will enhance the profits of those still 
in the trade. If the sheep farmer receives even 2^c. 
only per Ib. for the carcases he delivers at the works 
it pays him. So cheap is mutton in the colony that 
during the year ending March 31, 1888, while 931,526 
sheep were frozen and 215,192 were preserved for export, 
no less than 378,339 were boiled down for tallow. 

The value of cured, salted, and tinned meats in the 
year ending March 31, 1888, was 98,036. 



3. Skins and Sides. 

Over twelve and a half millions of rabbit-skins were 
exported during 1887, of the value of 111,172 a 
poor compensation, though not to be despised, for the 



PRODUCTIONS AND INDUSTRIES. 183 

devastation of the pasturage in the South of New 
Zealand by the voracity of these Rodentia. In that 
year the export of all descriptions of skins and hides 
was over fifteen millions in number, of the value of 
240,219. 

4. Dairy Produce. 

Australia regards New Zealand as its dairy farm, 
just as it looks upon Tasmania as its fruit garden and 
jam factory. India also is now looking to New 
Zealand for cheese and butter. The fondness of the 
"mild Hindoo" for ghee affords an outlet for the in- 
ferior butter of the New Zealand farmer, while the best 
and medium qualities realize handsome prices in the 
two great markets above mentioned. The export of 
butter from New Zealand during 1887 amounted in 
value to 54,921, and of cheese the value was 54,562. 
In this connection I may mention the invention by 
J. A. Pond, of Auckland, of an ingenious enamel for 
lining butter-boxes, which makes them air-tight and 
water-tight. Butter may thus be conveyed to any dis- 
tance without waste or loss. There are about 190,000 
cows in New Zealand, and each is estimated to return 
5 per annum to the owner. The cheese factories have 
not been all successful, but have created a new export, 
which will in due time yield a handsome profit, and 
cause this new industry to be greatly extended. 

Though scarcely a product of the dairy, it is note- 
worthy that honey of excellent flavour is being produced 
in the Waikato and other districts of the North Island. 
The value of the honey exported in 1886 was 1133. 



5. WJieat and other Cereals. 

New Zealand is first a pastoral, and secondly an 
agricultural country ; but the area devoted to the growth 
of cereals is every year increasing. The wheat-growing 
land in 1888 was 337,359 acres, an increase of more than 
104,000 acres over the area thus occupied in 1887. In 



184 



NEW ZEALAND. 



1888 the production of wheat was 9,424,059 bushels, 
as against 6,297,638 bushels in 1887. 

The yield per acre in 1888 was very good, surpassing 
the annual average. In Auckland and Taranaki it was 
over 29 bushels ; in Otago nearly 30 ; while in Hawke's 
Bay it reached the high figure of 31'48. 

Of course harvests vary from year to year even in 
the comparatively steady climate of New Zealand ; but 
it is confessed by all the other colonies to be ahead of 
them in the average yield per acre of all cereals, ard of 
potatoes. For instance, in 1882, according to the best 
statist of the colonies, Mr. H. H. Hayter, of Victoria, 
New Zealand produced per acre : 





New Zealand. 


New Sonth 
Wales. 


Victoria. 


Wheat . . . . 
Oats 


Bushels. 

26-28 
32-95 


Bushels. 

16-34 
24-88 


Bushels. 

9-03 
26-17 


Barley ..... 


26-19 


20-55 


17-35 


Potatoes 


Tons. 

5-1 


Tons. 

3-00 


Tons. 

3-78 



New Zealand oats are of high quality, and when 
there is a drought in Australia their price goes up 
very high, and is even maintained (as in 1889) for 
some months after the welcome rain has fallen. In 
1887 over three million bushels of oats, of the value of 
279,556, were exported ; and of barley, maize, and 
malt 213,969 bushels, valued at 39,799. More land 
should be sown in these cereals, for they are all of such 
good quality and weight as to pay better than the 
produce of grass land. Out of seven and a quarter 
million acres under cultivation in February 1888 (the 
latest official statement) nearly six millions were sown 
with grasses. Grass and clover seed to the value of 
45,000, and potatoes valued at 23,700, were exported 
in 1886. The best-flavoured and best-keeping New 
Zealand potatoes are those grown in Canterbury. 



PRODUCTIONS AND INDUSTRIES. 185 



6. Timber. 

Extensive forests of useful native woods abound in 
New Zealand, and are being used up at a prodigal rate. 
The most valuable tree of all is the kauri pine 
(Dammara Australis), of the natural order Conifer, to 
which many of the timber-trees belong. Builders are 
insatiable in their demand for the kauri, whose wood, 
of a light yellowish brown colour, tough yet silky when 
polished, and very easily worked, is durable, not readily 
worm-eaten, and when long seasoned does not shrink 
perceptibly. Unfortunately it is a tree of very slow 
growth, does not exist south of Mercury Bay, and it 
is not being replanted anywhere. At the present rate 
of consumption, in about fifteen years this favourite 
timber will be extinct. Some kauri trees are found 150 
feet high with a circumference of sixty to ninety feet. 

In 1887 there were produced nearly thirty-one mil- 
lion feet of sawn and hewn kauri timber, valued at 
127,108, the price being low: during the previous 
year 29^ million feet had realised 139,905. The woods 
next in commercial value are: the birch, kahikatea 
or white pine, rimu, totara, puriri, rata, white and black 
maire, rewarewa, and pohutakawa. In the Middle 
Island, there being no kauri, the great demand is for 
white pine (Jcahikatea) and birch for building. The 
gum that ages ago exuded from kauri trees, long dead 
and decayed, affords a special industry in the north of 
the North Island. It is dug up from the ground, being 
found usually from two to six feet below the surface, 
and forms, when properly cleaned, a valuable article of 
export. " Gum-digging " is regarded in Auckland as 
the "last refuge for the destitute;" for the work is 
rough but remunerative, and requires no previous 
training. A spear wherewith to prod the ground, a 
spade to dig out the gum, a knife to scrape it, and a 
sack are all that are needed to fit out the " gum-digger." 
Their camps are one of the sights peculiar to the North 
Island. " Wastrels," men of education and culture, run- 



186 NEW ZEALAND. 

away sailors and shopmen, broken-down speculators, 
and the waifs and strays of society are to be found in 
the ranks of the gum-diggers. The kauri gum is an 
amber-resin, and is sought after by coachmakers and 
others in London and New York because its finer more 
transparent forms make, when melted, a transparent 
varnish suitable for carriages. To make the varnish 
the kauri gum is melted in copper kettles and mixed 
with turpentine and linseed oil. Its market price 
fluctuates greatly. In 1882 gum was worth 46 per 
ton on an average of the whole year. In that year 
5533 tons, of the value of 240,580, were exported; in 
1887 the exportation was 6791 tons, valued at 362,449. 
This natural and useful product will, like the kauri 
itself, come to an end in no rery long time. It is now 
being searched for with all the ardour that men display 
in prospecting for gold. 

7. Gold and Silver. 

The existence of gold in the Thames river, near 
Auckland, in the North Island, was reported by a 
traveller named Griffe in 1830 ; but it was not until 
1852 that it was discovered in payable quantities, by 
Mr. Charles Ring, in the Coromandel district. It is 
now found to be of all metals perhaps the most widely 
distributed in New Zealand. Gold occurs in three 
kinds of deposits. 1. Quartz veins (Auckland district). 
2. Alluvial drift (Otago). 3. Eecent sea-beaches 
(Hokitika). 

From the year 1857, when the Government began to 
levy a tax of half-a-crown (since reduced to two 
shillings) upon every ounce extracted from the ore, to 
the present time, this precious metal has yielded an im- 
portant item to the annual revenue of the colony. The 
value of the gold exported up to the end of 1887 was 
44,042,576, and of the silver 124,721. 

Silver is found as an alloy in Thames gold ore to the 
extent of thirty per cent; and in galena (sulphide of 
lead) to the amount of twenty to fifty ounces to the ton. 



PRODUCTIONS AND INDUSTRIES. 187 

A few of the New Zealand gold mines have been 
very rich. One quartz mine alone, the Caledonian, in 
the Thames district, yielded no less than 1,500,000 in 
gold, paying in one year 570,000 in dividends to its 
lucky shareholders. Of late years the production has 
been falling off'. During 1887 the total value of all the 
gold yielded by .the mines in the colony was 811,100, 
being a decrease of 92,000 on that of 1886. 

The Bank of New Zealand, which is the chief con- 
signer of the precious metals to foreign parts, has a 
most perfect and economical method of assaying and 
parting the metals, the secret of which, I am informed, 
is the property of the bank. 

There being no mint in New Zealand, the bullion 
has to be sent to Melbourne, Sydney, or London for 
coinage. 

8. Other Metals. 

It is more difficult to name the metals that do not 
occur somewhere or other in this prolific metalliferous 
country than to enumerate in a brief space those that 
are found there. 

Iron occurs in three forms : haematite, chrome iron 
ore, and iron-sand. For about 300 miles the beach of 
the west coast of the North Island, from Ahipara south- 
wards to Egmont, is covered several inches deep with this 
very curious product, containing from sixty to seventy- 
two per cent, of metallic iron and titanium blended, the 
balance being pure silicious sand. Fiji produces iron- 
sand like it, but I am not aware of any other country 
south of the equator that contains a similar deposit. 
It presents great difficulties in working, but these have 
at last been overcome by ' Edison's magnetic separator ' 
and by peculiarly constructed furnaces, so that the 
works at Onehunga, near Auckland, and at Taranaki 
(now united with the former), are beginning to 
manufacture good tough iron. There is a large and 
increasing demand in New Zealand for articles of iron 
and steel; and, after sinking thousands of pounds 



188 NEW ZEALAND. 

sterling in earnest experiments, the plucky Iron Works 
shareholders seem now to be in a fair way to com- 
mence supplying this demand within the colony. 

The recent discovery of extensive petroleum springs 
at the Sugar-Loaves, and along the beach, at Taranaki, 
suggests a cheap and handy kind of fuel for the 
smelting processes. 

Copper, cinnabar, tin the last deposit having been 
found in the South (or Stewart's) Island ; antimony, 
as stibnite ; manganese as psilomelane ; and lead as 
galena occur plentifully. D. Sutherland has discovered 
some rich mineral deposits in the West Coast Sounds, 
which in time will be worked. Many other minerals 
exist in the colony which I have not space to notice. 



9. JSuilding Stone. 

Beautiful marble is found in Caswell Bay and other 
places ; limestone in Otago and elsewhere ; bluish-white 
granular freestone at Oamaru ; roofing slate in the 
Kakanui Mountains ; cement, kaolin, and granite have 
been discovered. Very good local cement is manu- 
factured by Wilson Brothers, of Auckland, out of lime 
scoria and pebbles, which is becoming a favourite 
material for houses, water-channels, plinths of railings, 
and so on. 

10. Coal. 

Both lignite and coal are found in extensive deposits 
in New Zealand. Scientific men enumerate twenty- 
nine kinds of coal, but I can only mention the three 
chief varieties in use. The Taupiri (Waikato) is the 
favourite coal for household use, being a quick- burning 
coal with a dry light ash, and throwing out great heat. 
The Westport (Middle Island) and Bay of Islands 
(North Island) varieties are slow burning and leave 
much ash, but form good steaming coal : a good deal 
is now being exported to Australia for gas-making 



PRODUCTIONS AND INDUSTRIES. 189 

purposes. There are now in New Zealand 126 coal 
mines, employing 1499 men, and these mines are pro- 
ducing an increased quantity every year. In 1887 the 
entire output of coal amounted to 558,620 tons, of 
which 44,129 tons were exported. 

11. Miscellaneous Products. 

1. The native flax or hemp, Phormium tenax, a 
shrub belonging to the Liliacese, possesses a fibre which, 
when well soaked for a long time in water, and thus 
freed from most of the gum contained in it, is readily 
made into ropes, matting, cord, brushes, baskets, and 
other articles. By a new process wrapping paper is 
shortly to be made out of this useful fibre. As the 
shrub grows wild all over New Zealand one would 
expect it to have been a source of great profit by this 
adaptability ; but the very great difficulty of entirely 
eradicating the gummy matter from the leaf and stalk 
has rendered useless, for real wear and tear, many 
articles which have been manufactured from it. In 
1886, 1,112 tons of this flax fibre, valued at 15,922, 
were exported. 

2. The fungus called Hirneola polytricha, which 
grows on decaying trees in Taranaki, at the East Cape, 
and elsewhere, is gathered for export by the Maoris, and 
by the children of settlers. The Maoris used to eat this 
fungus, but now prefer the better food provided for 
them. Dried and packed in bales the fungus is sent 
to China, where it is highly valued as a delicacy, and 
also as a medicinal blood-purifier. It brings ll^d. 
per Ib. in Hong Kong and 7^d. per Ib. in San Francisco. 
In 1886 the quantity amounting to 5627 cwt. of fungus, 
of the value of 11,047, was exported from New 
Zealand. 

3. Tanekaha bark, derived from three species of the 
Phyllocladus, or celery-leaved pine, is one of the best 
vegetable dyes in the world for yellow, pink, and fawn 
colours. During the first six months of the year 1883, 
375 tons of this bark were exported, valued at 3080. 



190 NEW ZEALAND. 

The bark of the Acacia mimosa, or " wattle," is also used 
as a dye, and for tanning purposes. The manufacture 
of colonial leather is still increasing. 

4. Most people outside New Zealand believe that the 
whaling industry round the coast is now extinct. But, 
though this business is certainly decreasing, it still 
exists, as is proved by the substantial fact that 25,571 
gallons of sperm and black-fish oil, valued at 6105, 
were exported in 1886. 

5. Petroleum springs have been discovered near 
Gisborne and at Taranaki (p. 188). The oil seems more 
adapted for lubricating purposes than for illumination. 

12. Minor Industries. 

Among these may be mentioned carriage-building 
colonial buggies constructed after the American pattern, 
but more strongly built, being particularly good. 

Furniture, besides all the moveable parts belonging 
to a wooden house, is now made in large quantities, 
both from the native woods mentioned on p. 185 and 
from imported wood. The kauri, rimu, puriri, and 
rewarewa woods are particularly well adapted for 
cabinet work. The industries of fruit-preserving 
Nelson jam being especially good of soap and candle 
making ; sauce and pickles, tomato sauce being the 
favourite kind, because that valuable esculent grows to 
perfection in New Zealand; fish-curing and canning, 
(chiefly mullet and schnapper) ; biscuits and con- 
fectionery ; the manufacture of tobacco, cigars, and 
cigarettes all these and many others are in a more or 
less flourishing condition. There are also paper mills 
at Dunedin and Mataura; cast steel works at Green 
Island ; glass works in two places in the colony, and 
gas is manufactured in all the towns of any importance. 

No doubt a great impetus to local industries and 
manufactures was given by the influx of borrowed money 
and by the high protective tariff of the colony. The 
banks furnished capital freely so long as money was 
" easy " to start various enterprises. But when the loan 



PRODUCTIONS AND INDUSTRIES. 291 

expenditure came to an end many of these industries 
collapsed or changed hands. At times like these free 
traders look up and promulgate their views, but pro- 
tectionists look down and are silent. But soon, in the 
rapid movement of colonial trade, capital flows in again 
to the colony, and the mills, factories, and workshops 
reopen on a basis of sounder experience. The resident 
in New Zealand finds at the present day that the price 
of some manufactured articles (imported) clothes, for 
example are reduced by over-stocking and keen com- 
petition, to almost English figures. 

In 1881 the total number of works and manufactories 
in New Zealand was 1643 ; in 1886 the number had 
risen to 2263. 

The Government have from time to time offered 
bonuses for the manufacture of raw materials found in 
the colony, and for the cultivation of new vegetable or 
animal products useful to the country. Between the 
years 1877 and 1885 payments of bonuses, varying 
from 150 to 1500, in all amounting to 5334, were 
made to manufacturers who had produced gunpowder, 
sulphuric acid, wrapping and grey paper, oil-cake, 
linseed oil, earthenware, cheese, and frozen meat. A 
bonus is still, I understand, being offered for the manu- 
facture of a certain quantity of each of the following 
articles made in the colony : kerosene, pig-iron, 
wrought-iron blooms, printing paper, silk (cocoons or 
eggs), and starch. 

Several new cultivations of economic plants have 
been recently introduced experimentally, and bid fair to 
be successful. Among these are the sugar-beet (Sorghum 
saccharatum), banana, olive, raisin-grape, tea, coffee, 
cinchona, and white mulberry (Morus alba), for the silk 
culture. New Zealand wine has also been made, but 
has not yet attained, so far as regards the samples tested 
by the writer, to a palatable quality. It has been 
proved, however, that the climate of Whangarei, among 
other localities, is quite suitable for the culture of the 
French and German wine-grapes. 

Whatever may be thought of the wisdom of the 



192 NEW ZEALAND. 

"policy of bonuses," called by its free-trade enemies 
"pap-feeding," there can be no doubt that it has 
stimulated manufactures generally, and discoveries of 
useful indigenous material very greatly. Several 
household and educational articles have been creditably 
made at least twenty years before they would have 
been manufactured in the colony without such stimulus. 
On the whole the " bonus policy " is less objectionable 
than an Import Tariff so high as to be really protective. 
The annual industrial exhibitions held in each of the 
four capitals afford the best opportunities to the 
stranger to see for himself the great variety and 
excellent quality of New Zealand raw and manufactured 
productions. No visitor should miss them. In Christ- 
church I saw, at one of these industrial exhibitions, 
carpets, blankets, tweeds, soap, jams, and cabinet work 
of the exquisite native woods above mentioned (p. 185), 
which I had great difficulty in believing were not the 
work of first-class European makers. Both Scuffert 
and Norrie, of Auckland, astonished the world at the 
" Colinderies " by their inlaid cabinet ware, and the 
more these lovely natural products, their beauties 
being tastefully brought out by cutting and polishing, 
are known, the greater will be the demand for them by 
travellers and their friends. A table of inlaid woods 
presented to us by our good friends in Auckland is the 
central ornament of our drawing-room. 

There is a free-trade party in the House of Eepre- 
sentatives, headed by my friend Mr. E. Withy, member 
for Newton, Auckland, and though its numbers are 
small, the active propaganda it has recently carried 
on by lectures, speeches, and the distribution of the 
pamphlets of the Cobden Club is making converts to 
the doctrines of free trade in the House and among the 
public. But so long as the New Zealand manufacturers 
insist upon protection, and the working-men who have 
votes are firmly convinced that a high tariff means to 
them high wages and short hours of labour, there is no 
probability of any alterations in the fiscal policy of the 
colony during this generation. American ideas are 



PRODUCTIONS AND INDUSTRIES. 193 

gaining ground among the working-men of New Zealand, 
as is shown by the imposition of a tax of 10 upon 
every Chinaman entering the colony. In this " exclusion 
policy " New South Wales and Victoria preceded New 
Zealand. 

The standard wages prevailing in the colony may be 
correctly judged of by the table I have drawn up in 
chapter i. They are always higher, and sometimes 
double the existing wages in England. In New 
Zealand even the boys in the fish canneries during the 
busy season can earn 1 per week. Lest employers 
should be discouraged, I may state that a New Zealand 
workman, mechanic, or artizan, fed upon an abundance 
of animal food (p. 204), can do more work in eight 
hours than a poorly fed Lancashire operative or a half- 
starved East Londoner. The Chartist rhyme 

" Eight hours' work, eight hours' play, 
Eight hours' sleep and eight bob a da}'," 

has long been realized in this colony, often called " the 
paradise of the working-man." But employment is 
not constant, and house-rent is a heavy expense. 

There seems to be a widespread belief in the colony 
among the proletariat that it is the duty of the Govern- 
ment in " slack times " to find or make work for the 
unemployed. This is quite a fallacy, for the Govern- 
ment of New Zealand never makes any such contract 
with the immigrant, and my working-men readers 
should clearly understand this. Just now only the 
classes of immigrants mentioned as being needed by 
the colony in my first chapter may expect to find 
immediate employment. High wages in a colony are 
often accompanied by irregularity or inconstancy of 
employment. Political economists, who are also prac- 
tical men, tell us that these high wages cannot be long 
maintained in New Zealand even by the powerful 
trades unions. They say that New Zealand will lag 
behind the older Australasian colonies until wages are 
reduced (by immigration or other caxises) to a point at 
which capital can make its favourite manufactures. 

o 



194 NEW ZEALAND. 

pay. A clever engineer and large employer of labour, 
Mr. W. N. Blair, dealt ably with this and other cognate 
questions affecting the industrial development of this 
colony in an address delivered to the Industrial Asso- 
ciation of Canterbury at Christchurch, February 24, 
1887. I quote the following passage, which would 
have been emphatically hooted by any colonial audience 
of working-men, but seems to have been approved by 
the Association : " In New Zealand we want, most of 
all, men, women, and children ' all sorts and conditions 
of men,' and of all ' kindreds and tongues,' to develop 
the varied resources of the colony. Anglo-Saxons to 
trade, grow corn, and drive engines, Italians to plant 
olives, Frenchmen to make wine, and Mongolians to 
grow tea and tobacco." 

These ideas are good from one point of view, but it 
would be much more in accordance with the fitness of 
things and with Sir George Grey's oft-repeated patriotic 
wish, were the colony's need of population supplied 
solely from the overcrowded old country by harmonious 
co-operation between the Imperial and New Zealand 
Governments on the one hand, and between the 
Home Emigration Societies and colonial Chambers of 
Commerce on the other. These Chambers of Commerce 
are really representative practical associations, and are 
acquainted with the kinds of labour needed from time 
to time by the different districts of New Zealand. 
Settlers from European countries having special know- 
ledge of particular industries (e.g. wine-making) should 
be welcomed to New Zealand, as indeed they are, but 
not in too large numbers. Having seen the detrimental 
effects upon the city of San Francisco of a large 
Mongolian element, I am opposed to the influx of any 
Asiatic nationality into this Anglo-Saxon colony. 

Legislation regarding the employment of females and 
children in the various industries is both sensible 
and humane, and well enforced by the Government 
inspectors. I will give a few particulars. " No child 
under twelve may be employed in a factory. No 
female or child under fourteen may be employed at 



PRODUCTIONS AND INDUSTRIES. 195 

night, or for more than eight hours a day ; but a boy 
or girl of fourteen may be employed for ten hours a 
day for four days a week in fruit-preserving, fish-curing, 
or newspaper printing." Proper ventilation in work- 
rooms and factories, and an interval for meals every 
four and a half hours, are also strictly enforced. 
Thus the milliners, dressmakers, tailoresses, and boot- 
sewers of this colony have a much happier time (when 
employed) than their sisters in England. 

The simple and inexpensive Patent Law of New 
Zealand encourages the inventiveness of the New 
Zealander to such an extent co-operating, I suppose, 
with the stimulating climate that of late years there 
have been produced more patents per head of the popu- 
lation than in the hitherto most inventive nation in 
the world, the United States. But as comparison of this 
kind to be effective must be made by a careful study of 
trustworthy statistics extending over a long series of 
years, I merely mention this fact as a singular one, 
which the future may either make temporary or 
permanent. 

Certain it is, that in all branches of art and decorative 
industry New Zealanders take precedence, despite 
their small numbers, the youth of the colony, and the 
absence of Art Schools, Museums of Design in fact, of 
all the finer developments of South Kensington train- 
ing of all the other Australasian Colonies. I could 
enlarge on this subject for several pages, but will not 
lest 1 weary the reader, and seem to " blow " about my 
favourite- colony. 

It would be well for the exporter of English goods to 
New Zealand, and for the emigrant, to make himself 
accurately acquainted with the tariff in that colony, 
the rates of which have been lately raised for revenue 
purposes. Brett's Auckland Almanac, published 
annually, generally towards the end of October, 
contains the full, accurate, and revised duties, both 
fixed and ad valorem, on every article that is liable to 
pay, also the duty-free articles. The almanac for 1890 
is published in New Zealand in October, 1889, reaching 

o 2 



196 NEW ZEALAND. 

this country in December, 1889. And at any time the 
tariff can be obtained from the Agent-general's office in 
London. 

New Zealand is a country having all the natural 
resources in air, water, coal, iron, wool, sea-coast, 
and climate for manufactures ; but its inhabitants 
must not be impatient in attempting to rival the 
mother country, or to become prematurely " self- 
contained." Rather should a genuine demand for an 
.article of manufacture, when that need has for some 
time existed in their own colony, be gradually supplied. 
This will be a following out of the ordinary Law of 
Supply and Demand,instead of a " hot-house cultivation " 
of plants that shoot, indeed, quickly up, but are apt to 
fade and die. The recent want that has sprung up in 
the United States for " binder twine," made out of New 
Zealand hemp (Phormium tenax), is an example of the 
natural demand and supply. This fibre has proved such 
a failure in making cables for use at sea, on account of 
the swelling of the gum still remaining in it, that rope- 
makers have given it up in disgust, after losing heavily 
upon it. 

On the other hand, the discovery by the coachmakers 
of New York and London of a gum that is equal in 
purity, lowness of melting-point, and hardness when 
dry to kauri gum (pp. 185, 186), and cheaper, has so 
lowered the price of the latter as to suggest to New 
Zealand that it ought to make its own coach-varnish 
cut of this and other materials, which is now being 
clone. 



( 197 



CHAPTER XI. 

SOCIAL LIFE IN NEW ZEALAND. 

Its heartiness and unconventionally Tourists' mistakes and 
exaggerations Ups and downs Ruling forces in society 
Nouveaux riches The highest education and culture of England 
appreciated by colonial parents Neighbourly kindness Fire ! 
Hospitality Effects of meat-eating on Character The "larri- 
kin" How to cure "larrikinism" Recreation out of doors 
Cricket, football, tennis, cycling Indoor amusements Rinkin^ 
- --Lectures -Chess, Shakspeare, Dramatic clubs Music, concerts, 
amateur singers Professional teachers A musical colony Art, 
artists, and Art Exhibitions Literature Amateur science 
Happy and unhappy Homes Drinking customs "Lambing 
down" The sl>iu by drink Conclusion. 

IN New Zealand, the man who is adaptable to new 
conditions, and of a sympathetic nature, and who is not 
too old to learn, will find social life (as I have found it) 
very enjoyable, whether in town, or in the country. The 
reception given to such an one, whether man or 
woman, combines both English kindness, Australian 
heartiness, and the readiness to make a new neighbour 
feel " at home," that is characteristic of the Great 
Republic. Without disparagement to the United States, 
where I lived for nearly three years among many kind 
friends, nor to the dear Old Country, from which my 
heart has never been severed, I can truly say that my 
wife and I have formed the most genuine, helpful, and, 
we trust, lifelong friendships in the Colony of New 
Zealand. We felt, indeed, on quitting its shores for the 
old country that we were leaving home for a cold and 
strange foreign land ! To the observant Englishman 
whose heart is not sterilized by the moryue so condemned 
by our French neighbours, nor by the lust for gold, the 



198 NEW ZEALAND. 

new life he leads in New Zealand derives a zest not 
only from its freedom, sincerity, and unconventionality, 
but from the many quaint and out-of-the-way characters 
he encounters, both in and out of " society." We must 
remember en passant that " Society" as well as society 
exists in New Zealand, though it is not quite as 
exclusive as in Belgravia. The passing-round-the- 
world traveller seldom sees actual New Zealand Society ; 
and when he writes his inevitable book (of which crime 
I am also guilty, no doubt, but not of what follows) is 
prone to fill in his hasty sketches with the colouring of 
fancy. What vivid pictures of " life in New Zealand " 
we should obtain, for example, from Mr. W. J. Prater, 
as quoted in the Otago Daily Times ! At Wellington 
he writes that he saw " a number of men wearing red 
jackets and bound together by a long chain, marching 
through the streets. They are guarded by several 
officials in uniform with rifles under their arms and 
revolvers by their side. This strange procession is the 
prisoners who have been at work on the roads, and are 
now returning home to dinner." The words I have 
italicized are embellishments of Mr. P.'s fancy, while the 
rest of the paragraph is accurate enough. At Waimate 
Mr. Prater visited " the humble abode of two wood- 
cutters," who were " cutting timber in the midst of bush 
containing black men and wild animals." " Before 
retiring to rest," he continues, "a huge fire was lit 
outside the house. This precaution was necessary in 
order to prevent wild animals and other disagreeable 
creatures from approaching too near. A sentry was on 
guard all night, armed with a rifle and revolver." All 
this is highly dramatic, but as there are no wild animals 
in the colony, I suppose that Mr. Prater, who elsewhere 
states that " travel has increased his knowledge of the 
world and its inhabitants," felt bound to spice his 
brochure with some adventure, even if imaginary. 
" Minor inaccuracies, such as the statement that ' Port 
Chalmers is generally named the Bluff,' we may let 
pass, but we draw the line at wild animals," concludes 
the Otago Times. 



SOCIAL LIFE IN NEW ZEALAND. 199 

It is only when one settles down in the colony for 
some years that one gets into touch with the residents, 
and enters fully into the thoughts, ways, and actions of 
colonial life. What a chapter I could write on the 
eccentrics I have met in New Zealand ! What un- 
developed geniuses, what utter bores, what strange and 
queer men and women, still, (so far as I know), outside 
the Whau (or, as it now is politely named, Avondale) 
Asylum ! Perhaps some day I may give my reminis- 
cences, but meantime forbear. That there is a dis- 
tinction between life in Australia and life in New Zea- 
land is sufficiently shown by the difference between the 
scenes, events, and characters in Mrs. Campbell Praed's 
successful romances (" Policy and Passion," for instance) 
and those two typical New Zealand books, Miss Clara 
Cheeseman's "A Eolling Stone," and Lady Barker's 
" Station Life in New Zealand." The former clever 
novel contains admirably drawn scenes and illus- 
trations of genuine New Zealand life and character. 
Among others I can readily identify the " pro- 
fessor of music" and old Wasley, of Waitakerei, the 
lovely forest scenery so eloquently described by the 
authoress. In most parts of the book the scene is laid 
in towns, where, of course, the quaintest characters 
usually congregate. That too common event, a house 
on fire, is graphically described ; and the wreck of a 
steamer on the coast (the ill-fated Tararua, evidently), 
is told with all the skill of a practised novelist, though 
I am informed that this is a " maiden work." 

The latter book is a simple and graphic account of 
country life in New Zealand, in the Middle Island, 
which is made so attractive that it has induced many 
visitors to go out to the colony to try it. " Station life " 
has become more artificial and mechanical since Lady 
Barker's day. In a very democratic country such as 
New Zealand, where there is no aristocracy of birth or 
intellect to elevate society, where wealth, fluency of 
speech, and political influence seem to be the ruling 
forces in the community, the visitor might expect to 
find the entire social " tone " lower than at home. But 



200 NEW ZEALAND. 

my long experience of all strata of the mixed multitude 
has led me to the conclusion, different to that of some 
writers on the subject, that the average level of the 
intellectual and social life of New Zealand is not 
only higher than that of the other Australasian colonies, 
but that it is attaining, as time goes on, a still higher 
elevation. This high level is certainly not promoted 
by the so-called " society papers " of the colony, rather 
the reverse ; the chief factors in this upward movement 
are the deepening and extending love of art, learning, 
literature, science, and the noble ambition, often fired by 
Sir George Grey's popular addresses, of founding a New 
Zealand nation upon the highest models of the age. 

For, though the hardheaded, pushing, shrewd, money- 
making trader rather than the man of intellect and 
culture, acquires the reins of political and social power, 
yet education, culture, refinement, and learning do make 
their influence felt even in this utilitarian community. 
No one can doubt that not only natural gifts, but the high 
culture, dignity of manner, and the friendship with the 
" men of light and leading " of the day, possessed by Sir 
George Grey, have made him the orator of New Zealand, 
and given him the power to sway public opinion by his 
utterances. But in his rush through this colony, (or a 
fringe of it, so to speak,) the traveller is not usually 
fortunate enough to meet personally the real " makers 
of the country," but, coming across loud-voiced, coarse 
men, who " blow," as the colonial word is, only about 
themselves, their achievements, and their district or 
town not the whole colony, else one might forgive them 
he hastily and inaccurately puts these blatant 
nouveaux riches into his book (libellus, as Horace would 
term it) as representatives of New Zealand Society. 
One has to live there for years to understand the com- 
ponent parts and characteristics of " Society " and 
society. For my own part I do not attempt to 
analyze it in these pages of plain talk ; it is kaleido- 
scopic to a degree ; but of social life and the forces that 
sway it I can give an accurate idea. The same ups 
and downs that occur in older countries take place in 



SOCIAL LIFE IN NEW ZEALAND. 201 

New Zealand more often, more rapidly, and are less 
noticed. In the course of nine years' residence I have 
witnessed six changes of Government, four changes of 
Native Lands Court policy ; wholesale dismissals of 
Government officers ; the civil service remodelled ; and 
many unaccountable removals of head officials. In 
commercial life I have seen the Bank of New Zealand 
in great trouble ; two suicides through losses in land ; 
a tradesman become bankrupt three times; several 
merchants high in society move down from their grand 
mansions into cottages ; and finally, some of them leave 
the colony at their friends' expense. I have seen 
fashionable ladies left destitute widows, and doctors 
apparently doing a large practice die, leaving their 
families nearly paupers. " Grass widows " and " grass 
widowers " abound in New Zealand ; and deserted 
wives have a hard struggle. On the other hand I have 
seen a shabbily dressed mechanic who could not write 
his own name bequeath a large fortune to the most 
noble ends the relief of the poor and the aged. Viewing 
society as a whole, in any of the larger cities of New 
Zealand, I regard its elements as almost as mixed and 
shifting as those of a Western city in America. If an 
" old identity," a self-made man, is genuine, honest, and 
kindhearted, one soon learns to overlook mere breaches 
of pronunciation, of dress, and of manners. The new- 
comer, whether old, young, or middle-aged, should always 
make the acquaintance, and if possible the friendship, 
of some of these colonists. One thing is much to be 
admired in these rough diamonds, namely, their desire 
to give their children the highest education attainable 
in the colony ; and even in many cases to send their 
boys to an English university for a degree, and their 
girls to London for the season. Nothing could show 
more plainly than this custom of sending their children 
Home to finish their education, the parents' regard for 
the best interests of their family, and their deep 
appreciation of the value of that higher education which 
had been denied to them by the circumstances of their 
early life. 



202 NEW ZEALAND. 

As regards getting into " Society," it is easier for a 
new comer in New Zealand than in the English 
provinces. To be able to play an instrument of music ; 
to dance or to sing passably (especially a comic song) ; 
to live in good style, and to wear good clothes these 
are the essentials for admission into " society." A 
newly arrived family occupying a good house will find 
many of the neighbours will call without any formal 
introduction. Such is the friendly colonial fashion. 
Neighbours in New Zealand are very kind and helpful 
in sickness, fire, accident, or any other domestic mis- 
fortune ; therefore an English lady though, if reserved 
and of retiring habits, she may be slightly startled at 
first at these colonial ways would do well to return 
the calls, for she will thus acquire a large number 
of acquaintances, among whom in due time real friends 
may be found. In the freedom of selection thus gained, 
affinities seek each other, heart becomes linked to heart, 
and " home sickness," from which Englishwomen suffer 
more than Englishmen, gradually disappears. In all 
my "globe-trotting," I have nowhere seen such an 
amount of lovely self-sacrifice ito others to the lonely 
stranger just arrived, it may be, dying of consumption ; 
or to the orphans and widows, many a time sent home 
by the subscriptions of those who could ill afford the 
money ; or in starting again an honest man who has 
failed in business as I have witnessed in New Zealand. 

The Kauri pine being the favourite building material 
for houses, fire is much dreaded, especially as kerosene 
lamps constitute the favourite means of illumination in 
the poorer dwellings. Perhaps the commonest cause is 
the placing of Taupiri coal ashes in a wooden box at 
night, and leaving it against the wall of the house or 
next to a wooden fence. The heat is retained in the 
ashes for an extraordinary length of time, and, if a 
wind is blowing, the box may take fire, and from it the 
house. Such events are common in towns, and 
necessitate prompt action on the part of neighbours to 
save each other's property. Lives are seldom lost, 
because the majority of houses have only one storey. I 



SOCIAL LIFE IN NEW ZEALAND. 203 

remember one summer night a fine two-storey new house, 
standing opposite to mine in Symonds Street, being 
burnt to the ground in twenty minutes, the owner and 
his son barely escaping with their lives, the alarm not 
having been given promptly enough to the fire brigade, 
which is an excellent one. The next house, owned and 
occupied by a medical friend of mine, was badly 
scorched, and just escaped the same fate. We worked 
like Trojans, hauling out his pictures, furniture, &c., 
and two neighbours in deshabille kept their garden hose 
playing upon the walls and roof till the brigade 
appeared. Brick houses are thought to be damp in 
the winter, but a well- dried concrete house is both cool 
in summer, easily warmed up in winter, and proof 
against fire. In the matter of hospitality New Zealand 
scarcely displays that profuse open-handed treatment 
of visitors, whether provided with introductions or not, 
offered by Australia. As a rule, a New Zealander likes 
an introductory letter, wants to know something about 
the new-comer, and so on, as in England. But if he 
likes you at first sight being a thorough believer in 
his own judgment he will treat you handsomely even 
without introduction; and in the country districts 
especially you will find a hearty hospitality, such as 
one reads of in old-fashioned books. The old settler 
has witnessed the advent of so many " wastrels " and 
baneful adventurers under a respectable guise that he 
is, with reason, cautious in his reception of new-comers. 
It has been observed that climate, scenery, and food 
have a powerful influence in modifying the character of 
a race of men imported into, and not indigenous to, a 
country. I consider that the characteristics of the New 
Zealander of British, not Maori blood, have been altered 
to some degree by his environment. It may be but a 
whimsical notion, but I have noticed, while studying 
the psychological features of New Zealand-born youths, 
that some of the Maori tendencies have been imparted 
to them. A certain stoicism and unimpressiveness are 
noticeable about native-born New Zealanders. For 
instance, in visiting London they never seem astonished 



204 NEW ZEALAND. 

at anything; nor can they " enthuse " over "Westminster 
Abbey, St. Paul's, the Tower, Windsor Castle, or any 
of the "show places." 1 cannot explain this, except 
on the above theory, although well acquainted with all 
shades and grades of colonial character. 

There may be nothing in the theory that an excessive 
meat diet conduces to hardness and even cruelty of 
disposition ; but it is a fact that the flesh-eating and 
cannibalistic Maori of the recent past was conspicuously 
callous and cruel, quite unlike his &m>-eating cousins, 
the Samoans and Hawaiians. 

Now, it is a striking coincidence that the adult 
Anglo-Saxon in New Zealand consumes an average 
amount of 200 to 250 Ibs. of meat in the course of a 
year, while the American is content with 120 Ibs. and 
Briton with 110 Ibs. The police-court records of New 
Zealand show the existence of a large and increasing 
class of evil-doers, termed " larrikins " or street-roughs, 
who are usually well fed on meat chiefly. The 
" larrikin " is an unfeeling, callous, and cruel fellow, 
more ready to rob, knock down, and otherwise maltreat 
a feeble old woman, defenceless girl, or drunken man 
than to tight a policeman. Corrupted and-incited to bad 
ways by a few rapscallions exported by their friends, 
or who had come as " shilling-a-month men " from 
London, New York, or San Francisco, these fellows are 
becoming a terror to all peaceful citizens. Yet there is 
in many of them a daring, an intelligence, and restless 
energy and ingenuity which might be turned to better 
ends. An excellent cure for " larrikinism " in the sea- 
port cities, might be found in the establishment of a 
training-ship like the Conway at Liverpool, for those 
who would take up the sea as a profession. Another 
" cure " would be the formation of a Cadet Corps of 
Volunteers in every town of a certain size, officered by 
educated men, kindly yet firm, who would drill them, 
enforce strict discipline ; yet become personally inte- 
rested in the rank and file; and give them all the 
recreation and freedom that is possible. I have seen 
several of these "larrikins," under the force of an 



SOCIAL LIFE IN NEW ZEALAND, 205 

awakened conscience and of kindness, reform, and 
become useful and honourable citizens. Certain it is, 
that unless the misdirected activity of these lads be 
guided into harmless or beneficial channels, their 
lawlessness will become a real danger to the colony. 

I must now speak of the recreations which so 
diversify and brighten social life in this colony. 
Through its mild yet invigorating climate, its long 
summer, and the shortness of the customary hours of 
labour, New Zealand offers many facilities for open-air 
amusements. Therefore picnics, excursions, and riding- 
parties, drives, bowls, lawn-tennis, cricket, and football, 
are very much in vogue. In Auckland alone (with its 
suburbs) there were in 1888 no less than fifty clubs 
or associations for outdoor amusements 12 cricket- 
clubs, 22 football clubs, 10 yacht and boating clubs, 
and six bowling and tennis clubs. Some of these sports 
can be enjoyed all the year round in the North Island. 
Golfing is also played with great enthusiasm by the 
Scottish settlers in the Middle Island ; and in some 
winters, with a harder frost than usual, curling and 
skating may be enjoyed there. So great is the interest 
exhibited by the populace of the cities in the visit of a 
cricket or football team, that the mayor is importuned 
to grant a public holiday or half-holiday on the day of 
the match. To the employer of labour this practice 
means the loss of a day's wages and a day's work, while 
to the employed it means an extra holiday on full pay. 
As the colonial, postal, and bank holidays are already 
more numerous in New Zealand than at home, these 
extra holidays, sometimes falling upon mail -day, are not 
a little inconvenient to business men, who often pro- 
test against this growing custom. But the employes 
always carry the day, for the mayor is elected, as in the 
United States, by the general body of townspeople, and 
he seldom cares to risk unpopularity by refusing the 
holiday. 

Gymnasia are not numerous in the colony, but those 
that exist are of first-class quality and seem to be well 
patronised. 



206 NEW ZEALAND. 

Volunteering is decidedly popular in the colony, 
although one sees complaints in the newspapers of the 
parsimony of the Government as to grants for outfit, 
capitation fees, and so forth. Now and then there is a 
little disturbance in a Corps, because there are more 
candidates for officers' commissions than can possibly 
be appointed. As the Royal holidays (Queen's Birth- 
day, &c.) and Easter week all fall in the warm season 
of the year, the volunteer corps have many opportu- 
nities of camp-training. Their physique is noticeably 
superior to that of the average British volunteer. 
Their numbers fluctuate considerably, because of the 
frequent removal of the privates from one part of the 
colony to another, to fulfil the requirements of business. 
The official return of the number of volunteers of all 
ranks on March 31, 1888, was as follows : 

North Island 3632 effectives, including cavalry, 
artillery, engineers, naval artillery, mounted in- 
fantry, and riflemen. Middle Island 4432 effectives, 
comprising the same division as those of the North 
Island, with the addition of 69 honorary reserve men. 
Total for the whole colony, 8064 effective volunteers. 
There were also at this date 2773 cadets enrolled. 

As there is a law of compulsory service in the 
militia, in case of invasion in the colony, these 
volunteers would in such event prove most useful 
cadres for the uudrilled recruits. 

The last two winters I spent in New Zealand were 
characterized by a mania for Sinking. Kinks were 
opened in every town and in every suburb. Despite 
bruises, fractures, dislocations, sprains, and the doubtful 
acquaintances made in these halls by young ladies, there 
seemed to be a fascination about the tedious circling 
round a floor on imitation skates, to the music of a 
noisy band, amidst dust of a pine -splintery nature, and 
in the heat of a crowded gas-lit room, against which no 
other amusement could compete. I once went into 
the Choral Hall, Auckland (used one evening a week 
for rinking) and the scene reminded me of Leland's 
h amorous lines upon cycling : 



SOCIAL LIFE IN NEW ZEALAND. 207 

" The dimes that Breitmann doomble 

In learning for to ride, 
Vas oftener as de sand grains 
Dat rollen in der tide." 

The tumbling, indeed, at the rink seemed part of the 
fun, but it generally turned out no joke to the rinker 
who was undermost in the heap of sprawling, entangled 
humanity. The glamour of the roller-skate was that of 
the bicycle : 

"... The best of it, you bet, 

Vas that man could go so nicely 
Pefore he got oopset." 

In winter the indoor amusements of the New Zea- 
landers are as varied as they are in England. Clubs 
for chess, whist, Shakspeare reading, amateur acting, 
arid opera flourish. Choral and orchestral societies 
give their performances, and dinners, dances, evening 
parties, church socials, and entertainments of all kinds 
are numerous. At dinner parties there is less formal 
stiffness than in England ; men reveal their ideas more 
frankly and genially, and do not assume an unnatural 
frigidity, or a professional raconteur style along with 
their evening dress. After dinner there is always 
plenty of good music and singing in the drawing-room. 
Speaking of dinners, I may mention that there are 
excellent clubs in every large New Zealand town, where 
visitors may be entered as honorary members for one 
month. The cuisine of the very best New Zealand 
clubs stands well the closest criticism of a London 
gastronome, particularly when its best efforts are dis- 
played on the occasion of a banquet to some distin- 
guished visitor, or to a popular member who is leaving 
the city. 

There is nothing corresponding to the "London 
season " in New Zealand, unless it be that pale imita- 
tion of it called " The Wellington season " from April 
or May, till the end of July when the colonial Parlia- 
ment is in session. At that time an unusual bustle 
and gaiety prevail in the breezy city. " There is a sound 



208 NEW ZEALAND. 

of revelry by night ; " the theatre is open every night 
with something attractive, the ministers give dinners, 
balls, and evening parties, and the Governor holds his 
levees. 

There is no particular time of the year which may be 
called the "lecture season," as with us in England. 
Professional lecturers take New Zealand in the course 
of their Antipodean tour, as it suits them. Occasionally 
an eminent man, like Joseph Cook, of Boston, delivers 
a lecture while the mail steamer stays in port ; and we 
are very glad to obtain a glimpse and a hearing of 
one whose works had stirred our hearts and intellects. 
But systematic lecture courses, well advertised and 
" paragraphed " in the newspapers, are usually successful 
at any time of the year. To really ensure large 
audiences night after night, lectures must be bright, 
terse, not too heavy in facts and figures, and relieved 
by music or lantern illustrations. I remember that 
R. A. Proctor, Archibald Forbes, G. A. Sala, and Major 
Dane achieved a complete success in New Zealand, the 
four large cities vying with each other to give the 
lecturer the largest audience. In the country districts 
settlers will strain their slender exchequer and ride 
long distances in stormy weather in order to hear some 
favourite preacher or lecturer ; and woe to him who gives 
them chaff for wheat ! 

Having occasionally lectiired on scientific and literary 
subjects " Plant Life," " Shakspeare and Euphuism," 
" Esoteric Buddhism," " Longfellow," " Tennyson's 
Lyrics," " The Sphygmograph," and others the writer 
can testify how intelligent and appreciative New 
Zealand audiences are. In five or ten minutes the 
speaker feels thoroughly en rapport with those he is 
addressing. 

Throughout New Zealand, especially in the North 
Island, excursions and picnics by sea and land are 
rendered easy and delightful by the great advantages of 
a long steady summer, good springs, and streams of 
pure water everywhere, and the plentiful choice of 
picturesque spots of country, absolutely free from 



SOCIAL LIFE IN NEW ZEALAND. 209 

snakes, " wild animals," or poisonous insects (except 
the very rare Katipo, a small black spider marked by a 
red spot) ; from malaria ; and from shrubs which exhale 
poisonous emanations, like the Rhus diversiloba of 
California. Merry parties of young people are very 
seldom broken up by a thunderstorm, hail, or rain, as in 
Britain ; and the proximity of good excursion places to 
the towns in New Zealand does away with the necessity 
of a dull tiring journey home by rail, 'bus, or cab, which 
at Home often neutralises or mars the enjoyment of " a 
day in the country," or a " sniff of the briny." 

Many a time and oft have 1 longed to transport to 
dear old cloudy England year by year becoming more 
of a vast city some lovely bit of forest scenery the 
sky above of the purest blue, the " bush " below rich in 
evergreen trees and shrubs, interlaced with creeping 
and climbing plants, and carpeted with flowers in the 
centre a ferny dell, with a waterfall whose soothing 
music blends with the strange notes of the native birds 
the loud clear " ping " of the parson-bird (tui), the 
staccato cries of the tree-parrot (kaka) and the delicious 
three-note-chime of the bell-bird (Icorimalco). Scenes 
like these give inspiration to the local artists and form 
the chief charm and attraction of the local Art Exhibi- 
tions in the chief cities of the colony. But nature 
cannot be perfectly reproduced on canvas ; and I have 
enjoyed scenery in this colony which transcends in 
weird beauty anything that has come within my ex- 
perience in England, America, and Australia. 

The enjoyment of the country is enhanced, let me 
assure the reader who may think of visiting New Zea- 
land, by some knowledge of the art of photography. 
Nearly all the year round it is easy to obtain in that 
clear atmosphere well-defined photographs. I advise 
tourists to bring a camera of the latest type, and to 
take views as they pass along, which may be developed 
and printed by the photographers of the towns in which 
they make a stay. Thus a permanent and most inte- 
resting record of their New Zealand tour may be 
brought home. From experience I can state that there 

P 



210 NEW ZEALAND. 

is a great fascination abont amateur photography, 
especially abont one's failures ! 

In the social life of the people of New Zealand, art 
and mnsic are becoming important elements ; and this 
is one of the good omens for the future of the nation. 
Excellent exhibitions of paintings are held annually in 
each of the four centres, Auckland, Wellington, Christ- 
church, and Dunedin. In Auckland, where the Society 
of Arts (of which I was one of the original committee) 
manage the annual exhibition, there are never less 
than from 250 to 300 original oil or water-colour 
pictures presented for public inspection. Some, in each 
year, are of great merit, and the sales are very satis- 
factory, in good times. Landscape, still life, and flowers 
are the predominant subjects, drawing from the live 
model having only very recently been introduced into 
the art school. The majority of the pictures are by 
" amateur " artists, many of whom add to their income 
by the sale of their works; and even of the "pro- 
fessional " artists in Auckland, most aie self-educated 
men whose innate genius and perseverance in the lines 
of study (nature chiefly) accessible to them have 
triumphed over deficiencies in their Art-training. Take, 
for example, not invidiously to other artists however, 
Mr. Charles Blomfield, who was originally a carpenter. 
He has created for himself a world-wide fame as the 
painter of the Pink and White sinter Terraces, which 
were destroyed, to our grief and dismay, in the terrible 
event described in chapter vii. The peculiarly in- 
tense blue of the water in the basins of both Terraces, 
and the roseate pink shading, like the hues of dawn, of 
the steps of the Pink Terrace have been caught by him 
in a marvellously accurate manner. The figure-drawing, 
too, for which he used to be so sharply criticized, has 
greatly improved, and the introduction of life into his 
landscapes adds just the feature that was wanting. 
Space forbids mention of Ball, Drummond, Sturtevant, 
and others whose artistic development has been most 
creditable. It is pleasant to see how cordially both 
professionals and amateurs work upon the committees 



SOCIAL LIFE IN NEW ZEALAND. 211 

of these art societies, and to see pictures by both classes 
of artists hung impartially, according to their merits. 

Much encouragement of late has been given in Auck- 
land by the Society of Arts to Decorative Household 
Art, with the result of educing much latent talent and 
taste, and of brightening the colonial home by beauti- 
fying its interior. The number and variety of the 
native woods, so exquisite when inlaid and polished, 
further the latter desirable result. One family I knew 
intimately, whose home I never visited without finding 
some new object of art, the work of the young ladies of 
the house ; some painted panel or plaque ; some em- 
broidered bird or flower ; some hand-painted mirror or 
card ; exemplifying not only the taste but the originality 
of its artist. All the young people of this family could 
sing at sight, and each could play some instrument 
the violin being the favourite. No one becoming well 
acquainted with such Auckland homes could truthfully 
call the modern New Zealander a " Philistine." 

A sincere love for music is diffused throughout New 
Zealand. At the risk of being condemned by the 
Wellingtonians, Christchurchmen, and Dunedinites as a 
fanatical Aucklander, I have clearly pointed out in 
chapter iv. the pre-eminence of that city in the de- 
velopment of the divine art. What is needed now 
for its further culture is a complete Academy of Music 
in one of the large cities, and a musical festival (with- 
out prizes for brass-bands, and all that nonsense) to be 
held triennially in each of the four local capitals in 
rotation, managed by a standing committee of really 
musical amateurs, carefully selected from these cities. 
Nothing would give a greater impetus to choral and 
instrumental music than this move, which I commend 
to the present Governor of New Zealand, and to those 
in high places there, who love the " Art Divine " for its 
own sake. 

Singing from musical notation being now made a 
compulsory subject in the primary schools of the colony, 
the ear of a child is trained from an early age. The 
boy or girl who is really musical carries on the singing, 

p 2 



212 NEW ZEALAND. 

first of Sankey's Hymns, and Christy's songs, and then 
by joining a choral society, where " singing at sight " is 
usually required, becomes familiarized with high-class 
modern music. Almost every cottage in New Zealand 
contains a piano or American organ. The choirs of 
churches and the organ-playing have received favour- 
able notice from most travellers. It has come to pass 
that amateur vocalists, soprani and bassi being more 
numerous than alti and tenori, are so numerous and of 
such good quality that a concert is looked upon as the 
readiest means of raising funds for religious or bene- 
volent purposes. But this " readiness to oblige " has 
another side. The services of amateur singers being 
always gratis, it is difficult for a resident professional 
vocalist to make a living in the same city. If he relies 
on teaching, there is not much encouragement in the 
fact brought to my knowledge by a music teacher in 
1888, namely, that qualified professors of music were 
giving shilling lessons ! Probably terms may have 
improved, pari passu with the improvement in the 
times, since that date. The reader can thus understand 
that it is not difficult for the artizan in full work, who 
receives 8s. to 10s. a day, to be able to give at least one 
of his family a musical education. The tenor of the 
day becomes soon a spoiled favourite, so greatly is he 
sought after ; but I was amused to see that when he 
begins to put a price upon his voice his public engage- 
ments cease at least in Auckland. 

Elocution is not so much studied in New Zealand as 
music and painting ; but now and then a young man 
shows conspicuous talent as a reciter, and is then as 
much in request as the tenor above mentioned. 

Poetry (or rhyming) is much cultivated in New 
Zealand, the Auckland and Wellington newspapers 
generally overflowing with it. Sometimes a really 
poetic insight and power of expression is revealed. I 
wish that I had space to quote some of my clerical 
friend E. H. G.'s verses. His poetic genius must have 
slumbered until Auckland scenery and climate, and 
perhaps " the storms of fate " also awoke it. Passing 



SOCIAL LIFE IN NEW ZEALAND. 213 

to another subject amateur science as a recreation 
the collections of coins, minerals, insects, shells, and so 
forth, amassed by diligent workers in science in the 
colony are astonishingly numerous and good. Captain 
Broun, of Howick near Auckland, has made the most 
complete collection of the Coleoptera in Australasia. 
The formation in 1887 of the Australian Association 
for the Advancement of Science gives just the impulse 
that is needed to unite these scattered students of 
science in one society, and thus utilize their detached 
researches for the good of the whole scientific world. 

The average New Zealand settler is very glad to 
avail himself of the facilities near him in the shape of 
Free Libraries, Mechanics' Institutes, Athenaeums, and 
similar institutions (of which there are three hundred 
in the colony), in order to supply the deficiencies of his 
early education and to keep his reading well up to date. 
Each monthly mail brings its shoal of English and 
American books and magazines, and the bookseller who 
is late or incorrect in delivering them to customers is 
much berated. Having in a humble way striven to 
promote the intellectual culture of Auckland by founding 
Magazine Clubs, an Essay and Debating Club (the 
" Kiwis ") and in conjunction with others the Athenaeum 
of Auckland, I am in a position to state that there is a 
real and increasing love for good literature, permanent 
and serial, and a desire for the full and free discussion 
of all questions of the day. Henry George's " Progress 
and Poverty " aroused public attention in New Zealand 
months before England was stirred up by its startling 
problems. I congratulate the reading public of the 
colonies in general, and of New Zealand in particular, 
that two eminent London publishers (Macmillan and 
Kegan Paul, Trench, & Co.) have brought out recently 
special colonial editions of their publications, so that 
good reading is brought within the reach of the many 
who cannot afford the English prices, and have no 
circulating library accessible. 

There exists out at the Antipodes a vigour of un- 
trammelled thought and a receptiveness of mind which, 



214 NEW ZEALAND. 

while tending on the one hand to lead some men into 
unsettlement of religious faith, and into injurious 
practices, such as spiritualism, or wild mystic theories 
like Theosophy or Esoteric Buddhism, on the other 
hand encourages many weaker intellects to emerge from 
traditional grooves of thought into new truths, moral, 
mental, and spiritual, which they might never have 
found out in conventional England. There are also 
unconventional methods of preaching Christian truth, 
such as tent-missions, Salvation Army work, home Bible- 
readings, which are doing a grand work in New 
Zealand by counteracting the evil forces that exist in 
new countries where high wages, plenty of play-time, 
parental laxity, an independent spirit in children, free 
social intercourse among young people, and a stimu- 
lating climate, powerfully influence the social life of 
the community. 

Domestic life in New Zealand does not greatly differ 
from that in England, except that, good servants being 
scarce, and dear, the wife has to do more actual house- 
hold work than in the old country. Notwithstanding 
what I have to say later on regarding the drink 
question, I believe that, class for class, there is a 
smaller proportion of drunken husbands in the colony 
than in Great Britain. Very seldom do the newspapers 
report cases brought before the police courts of such 
brutal assaults on wives and children made by men 
under the influence of drink as one reads of every day 
in the English newspapers. 

Miss E. Katharine Bates, an observant traveller 
(whom I met in Auckland), goes so far as to assert in 
her book " Kaleidoscope, or Scenes from East tu West," 
that nowhere in her travels had she " seen S) many 
married couples who were happy as in this colony." 
Contrast this with E. "W. Payton's impression : " The 
normal condition of all housewives below that of the 
upper middle class is that of overworked house drudges. 
One result of this a sad breaking-down of character. 
Women drink a good deal on the quiet and this reacts 
on their temper, &c." 



SOCIAL LIFE IN NEW ZEALAND. 215 

Mr. Payton must have derived his impressions from 
some pessimist. I, who in the course of my professional 
duties have gone into all classes of homes at all hours, 
have seen neither evidences of secret drinking nor of 
temper produced thereby. Probably the truth lies 
between these two extremely opposite impressions. 

This quotation leads me to point out plainly, but yet 
in all kindness, what are the conspicuous blemishes in 
the social life of New Zealand. I mean the prevalence 
of gambling, immoderate drinking, and excessive 
smoking. The totalisator, a betting machine highly 
favoured all over the colonies, is the cause of ruin of 
thousands of young men. By purchasing a ticket for 
five or ten shillings each "subscriber " stands a chance 
of winning a prize of from ten pounds to five hundred 
pounds. It is a bad thing to waste money in buying 
tickets which only draw blanks, but it is a worse thing 
to win a prize, for then the gambling spirit is thoroughly 
stimulated. I knew one fine young fellow who won 
the large prize of a certain totalisator (400 I think 
it was). He never did any good in the world afterwards. 
I believe the New Zealand Government charge the 
proprietor of such an instrument a fee for permission 
to use it in public. If this be true it is a disgrace to 
the Government; for the law of the colony against 
gambling is so strict now, that even a clergyman who 
gets up a bazaar or fancy fair has to ask the Colonial 
Secretary for special permission to hold either a 
" raffle " or an " Art Union." I hope I am inaccurately 
informed ; for this is indeed " straining at a gnat and 
swallowing a camel." 

No Government can put down verbal betting, of course, 
but it seems to me the bounden duty of the New 
Zealand Government to enact a law to make the 
totalisator or any similar machine as illegal as roulette 
and rouge-et-noir are already. It is a pity to see such 
innocent, healthful games, such as cricket, football, and 
tennis, made the occasion for betting, as they are made 
in the colonies. Naturally the horse-races, so beloved 
by the mass of the colonists, are not free from the 



216 . NEW ZEALAND. 

" speelers " and other blacklegs who in England haunt 
these scenes and demoralise the old English sport. 

The pernicious and increasing habit of young lads 
beginning to smoke from the ages of nine or ten, is a vice 
which is destroying the health of hundreds. It cannot 
be met by prohibitive legislation, as a certain Legislative 
Councillor, now deceased, wished to meet it. Parents 
who themselves smoke should give it up as an example 
to their boys, and should sternly discourage any smoking 
by a boy until he is at least twenty years old. The 
crude and strong tobacco leaf now grown and manu- 
factured in New Zealand is deleterious to young smokers 
because it is so rich in nicotine. I shall give in chapter 
xii. definite reasons for these strong opinions. 

Unnecessary and immoderate drinking of liquor, 
chiefly in the form of "nipping," has grown into a 
serious social evil, nursed by the injurious colonial 
habit of treating friends and acquaintances to a drink 
at any hour of the day they may chance to meet. 
Standing treat all round goes by the singular term of 
" shouting " in Australasia. Punch satirized this habit 
in 1886, the Indian and Colonial Exhibition year, when 
he had a cartoon representing Britannia bidding " adieu 
to her Australian son, and his inexhaustible bottle." 

The waste of time, health, and money, in the colony 
caused by this custom is deplorable. Let me describe 
the usual incident. A. meets B. whom he has not seen 
for some days, perhaps. After the " How d'ye do ? " 
A. says, "Have a drink, old fellow?" "Don't care if I 
do," says B. All drinks being sixpence each, down 
goes a shilling. Then B. treats A. two shillings. C. 
comes in : " Hallo ! How d'ye do ? Will you join us ? " 
" Thanks, I don't mind." Drinks all round ; three-and- 
sixpence gone. Lastly C. " shouts " in return, perhaps 
even B. also,l and all retire. Thus five or seven shillings, 
and perhaps three quarters of an hour of the best 
business time in the day, have been consumed ; and 
none of the three men's heads are as clear for thought 
and calculation as they had been before the " shouting." 
I am glad to learn that this custom is on the decline 



SOCIAL LIFE IN NEW ZEALAND. 217 

among educated people ; and that another baneful habit, 
that of sealing orders given to commercial travellers by 
a drink, is also going out of fashion. There are other 
good signs of the spread of total abstinence. There is 
an agitation in the School Boards for the adoption of 
Dr. B. W. Eichardson's Temperance Lesson Book in 
the primary schools ; the granting by law of Local 
Option over the whole colony ; the general substitution 
of tea and coffee for wine at afternoon calls and at 
evening parties ; and the interesting fact observed by 
ministers and clergymen that most of the native-born 
youth (European race) are either abstemious or 
total abstainers. 

Among the degrading elements of social life in the 
colony are those poor fellows who are kept in New 
Zealand by money remitted by their friends in England 
once a month, either direct to them or through trustees. 
They are called " remittance men," and are a source of 
trouble to everyone acquainted with them. Usually 
they drink away the money within a few days of its 
receipt and then go about borrowing until the next 
mail comes in. They " shout " for other drinkers of a 
lower grade who hang round the post-office, with that 
object in view. 

Among bushmen, shepherds, shearers, and others in 
the country the cashing of the half-yearly cheque for 
wages is made the occasion of a long drinking spree. 
When the poor wretch comes to his senses he generally 
finds himself lying on the road, robbed of everything 
except his clothes. This little process by which the 
publican is fattened and the bushman skinned is 
facetiously called " lambing down." The victim walks 
back to his employer's station, begging his meals on 
the way and a shakedown in a stable at night : to 
repeat the same folly at the end of another half-year. 
" Many a man," says E. W. Payton, " who can earn 3 
and live comfortably upon 1 per week will drink 
away 2 and run into debt besides." 

It is calculated by some profound temperance mathe- 
matician that New Zealanders spend no less than three 



218 NEW ZEALAND. 

millions per annum upon drink! I can scarcely credit 
this, but have not the figures by me to check it. There 
must, however, be some connection between an inor- 
dinate expenditure in alcohol and the comparatively 
large number of lunatics in New Zealand, for the 
records of the Asylums, which contained in 1886 
over 1600 lunatics, show that alcoholism is the pre- 
vailing cause of mental disease. 

Sir Win. Fox, K.C.M.G., the eloquent and energetic 
President of the United Kingdom Alliance in New 
Zealand, has remarked that while people are horrified 
at the appalling description of 10,000 corpses that were 
found heaped up in one place' in the Johnstown, U.S., 
disaster, they are never shocked at the thought of the 
awful spectacle that would be presented were it pos- 
sible to bring together the scattered bodies of the 
thousands slain by drink in a single year. He states 
further that 1500 deaths every year one for each 
public-house in the colony are distinctly caused by 
drink in New Zealand. But after all the " Britain of 
the South " is a more sober country than its northern 
prototype and parent. 

In conclusion, I may sum up my impressions of 
social life in New Zealand by saying that it is freer, 
fuller, more friendly, more democratic, and more 
original in development, than it is at Home. Though 
the influence of the nearer United States is distinctly 
felt the New Zealanders are yet thoroughly English, 
with much of the Australian heartiness about them. 
Any honest, industrious, self-respecting man or woman 
can form a pleasant home among them, with facilities 
for cultivating the mind and the taste, and for acquiring 
a host of congenial friends. 



( 219 ) 



CHAPTER XII. 

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCES. 

Openings for Practice, and prospects of new comers Age at which 
to emigrate Outfit Registration Fees Clubs Working 
Expenses of Practice Diseases prevalent among the Maoris 
Native remedies Singular mode of reviving the apparently 
drowned Decrease of the natives still going on Letter from a 
missionary Diseases of the colonists Typhoid fever, its cause, 
prevention, and death-rate The Exanthemata Diphtheria 
maligna Poisoning from tinned meat and from Ptomaines 
Phthisis pulmonalis Cases arrested by climate of New Zealand 
Phthisis laryngea Bronchitis and Cynanche benefitted by 
Auckland climate Entozoa common Caries of teeth No Ague 
in the colony- Katipo-bite Diseases arising from Abuse of 
Alcohol and Tobacco Lunacy in New Zealand Vital statistics. 

IN view of the numerous letters I have received since 
my return to England from medical men, both those 
who are seeking openings for practice in the colonies, and 
those who want to know all about New Zealand as a 
Health Resort, I have thought it well to add this chapter 
in order to supply the definite information required. 

The non-medical reader will understand, therefore, 
that this chapter is written for the medical profession 
alone. 

First, let me inform my medical brethren that 
there are openings occurring from time to time in New 
Zealand. 

Second, that there are not now any " fortunes " to be 
made in practice as seems to have been the case twenty 
years since. 

Third, that even now, a thorough knowledge of one's 
profession, especially of surgery, steady hard work, and 



220 NEW ZEALAND. 

a little more "push" than is advisable in the old 
country will meet with success. 

Of late years, so many medical men have settled in 
New Zealand for the sake of their own or their family's 
health, and so many young surgeons go out there with 
emigrant ships and on steamers, that our profession is 
becoming almost as overstocked there as it is at home, 
in proportion to the general population. In chapter i. 
I quoted the exact number (495) on the New Zealand 
register in 1887, but by the time this book reaches the 
reader the number will have increased to at least 530 ; 
besides a large number of unregistered practitioners who 
obtain a fair amount of support from the New Zealand 
public. A Medical Registration Act is now being 
promoted by the New Zealand Medical Association to 
extinguish unlicensed practice. 

There are usually more ready openings for new 
comers in the country districts of New Zealand 
than in the towns, where medical men are apt to linger, 
like the artizan-emigrants, in the hope of obtaining 
immediate and lucrative employment. 

In the leading newspapers one finds now and then 
an advertisement for a fully qualified doctor, at a fixed 
salary, or a guaranteed minimum income, capable of 
being improved and extended. Very often the house- 
surgeon of a District Hospital is allowed private prac- 
tice, so long as his routine duties are not interfered 
with. If the salary offered is under 300 per annum 
the probability is that he will be allowed private prac- 
tice ; if it is 300 or over, he will be debarred from it. 
Mining companies unite in employing a surgeon ; the 
salaries given varying from 300 to 500 per annum. 
The work is hard, and the exposure to weather and 
to risk of accident great, but a young, strong, energetic 
man, firm in the saddle and of steady nerve, will do 
well in such a position. 

In the towns the usual mode of starting in practice 
is to occupy the consulting-room generally attached to 
the shop of a chemist who is doing a large business, 
during certain hours of the day. The chemist has a 



PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCES. 221 

telephone, and the doctor's residence may be connected 
therewith ; the expense to the latter not exceeding 10 
per year. In consideration of the prescriptions made 
up for patients, the chemist makes no charge for the 
use of his room. This system resembles the American 
"office -hour" custom, and it enables a medical man to 
live in one of the healthiest suburbs of the town, while 
still all the time accessible to messages. After some 
years, having become fully established in the confidence 
of the citizens, he can retire from the chemist's rooms 
where his place will be promptly taken by a fresh 
arrival and conduct his practice entirely at his own 
house. Were I again starting practice in any of the 
towns I know in New Zealand, I should rent consulting 
rooms in the main street ; have a man or boy there all 
day ; a telephone ; and live where I liked, but not too 
far for patients to walk from office to house, or vice 
versa. I should carefully select my consulting-hours 
to suit the habits of the locality, and should keep them 
punctually. Always make the fee for seeing you at 
the house or rooms less than for a visit. There is a 
difference in the elements of immediate success in a 
colonial and in a British community. The dull steady- 
plodding doctor in the former case does not get on so 
well as one with " dash and volubility." The doctors 
I knew who succeeded most rapidly in building up 
large practices were young men of pleasing manners, 
fluent talk, and social accomplishments, who married 
soon after their arrival into some well-known, perhaps 
wealthy local family, and became thoroughly identified 
with the place. They became almost at once colonials 
in freedom of manner and unconventionality of dress. 
On my return Home everything and everybody in the 
profession seemed formal and stiff in dress, etiquette, 
and behaviour. 

The proper age at which our colleagues may emigrate 
with the best chance of success I should place at from 
twenty-four to fifty. From the study of the careers of 
the twenty-four colleagues who settled in or near Auck- 
land after my arrival there in 1879, and from personal 



222 NEW ZEALAND. 

knowledge of many others, I am of opinion that, 
whether . married or unmarried, a medical man after 
the age of fifty cannot adapt himself to colonial ways. 
There may be exceptions. If a doctor breaks down in 
health, yet not so much as to debar him from work, 
and needs the change to any particular colony, if his 
wife is healthy, adaptable, and hopeful it is the women 
who suffer most from nostalgia and if his family 
consists chiefly of strong healthy boys, then he may 
emigrate even after that age. But in New Zealand I 
have generally seen, in the competition of practice, that 
" the race is to the swift and the battle to the strong." 

Buying a practice, as is done in England, is almost 
unknown in New Zealand ; even purchasing a medical 
partnership is an uncertain speculation, for the " good- 
will" of a colonial practice cannot be purchased. 
Patients are generally "independent," as they call it, 
roaming from one doctor to another, believing devoutly 
in specialties, and regarding the newest arrival from 
the old country as the incarnation of all the learning 
and wisdom of medicine. Thus a New Zealand doctor 
always has patients leaving him, just as he has always 
patients coming to him a constant influx and efflux, 
without that strong " back-bone " to his practice, which 
the affection and respect of his clientele, won by long 
years of toil for them, and by clinical triumphs, secures 
for him in the Old Country. 

One of the best openings I have seen in good city 
practice is when a colonial practitioner is desirous of 
taking a six or twelve months' holiday in England. 
Then some new arrival takes his entire practice as locum 
tenens, with permission to remain in the same locality 
on the return of the owner ; and the loss of patients, if 
any, is chiefly on the latter's side. Colonial patients 
like their favourite doctors to visit the old country 
every few years, and acquire the newest ideas and 
inventions. 

The outfit for a medical emigrant should comprise a 
very complete set of surgical instruments, duplicates 
being taken of the more commonly used, a good library 



PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCES. 223 

of standard professional works ; a first-class microscope ; 
a few of the more costly drugs; and large coloured 
diagrams of the body for " Medical Talks/' which are 
much in request. A hammock for hot nights, and a 
strong tent for "camping-out" will be found useful. 
A powerful telescope is also an enjoyable companion 
in the clear atmosphere of New Zealand. When I left 
the colony there was no duty either upon surgical 
instruments or upon philosophical apparatus. 

Having selected his place of work, the new doctor 
must comply with the registration law of New 
Zealand, which commands him to show his diplomas 
to the Eegistrar-general, or the Provincial Eegistrar ; to 
pay a fee of 2 ; and to advertise in a daily news- 
paper his declaration of intention to practise, setting 
forth his full titles and qualifications. No title or 
qualification is registrable in New Zealand which is 
not recognized by the General Council of Medical 
Education and Eegistration of Great Britain. 

The average fees of a respectable practitioner in New 
Zealand city practice are equal to the best scale of 
those paid to the general practitioner of London, and 
are much better than those realised by our provincial 
colleagues. But, even for important operations, the 
Auckland fees were not equal, as they ought to be, to 
those paid to London surgeons. At the time I left, the 
fees seemed to be declining, in consequence of the 
commercial depression, and the unfair competition 
started by a doctor, who advertised " Advice and 
medicine at English rates," which meant giving for 2s. 6d. 
what all of us, correctly, charged five shillings for. 
One is always exposed to this sort of thing in the 
colonies. There is less booking, and a larger proportion 
of ready-money payments, than in England. 

Clubs pay the doctor on a higher scale than at home 
1 per head per annum, or 15s. being a common rate. 
Even with the increased cost of drugs, caused by the 
heavy tariff, and the greater expense of surgical 
appliances, which are all imported, these payments re- 
munerate the club doctor better than the pittance of 



224 NEW ZEALAND. 

four or five shillings he receives in England. I 
steadily refused clubs because I did not need them, but 
they are useful appointments to begin with. 

In estimating the working expenses of a New 
Zealand practice, one must take into account the hilly 
nature of the country, the long distance, and the badly 
kept roads. A riding hack must be kept for even a 
small practice, and an American or colonial buggy 
for a fair-sized area of work. In Auckland and its 
vicinity, walking for some hours as we sometimes do 
in an English town practice at the beginning, is not 
possible in summer ; cabs are twice as expensive as at 
home ; and omnibuses are neither cheap, comfortable, 
nor frequent enough to be useful to a doctor. A good 
buggy with hood, lamps, and all appurtenances costs 
45 to 60 ; a good horse (ride or drive) varies from 
16 to 30 ; harness about 8, and a coachman's 
wages average 30s. a week and all found ; or 2 5s. a 
week, if he finds his own board and lodging. The 
livery " jobbing " system, so much in vogue here, does 
not pay the doctor in New Zealand. Horse-feed is 
cheaper than in England, but carriage repairs are 
extravagantly dear. Collisions and runaways are more 
frequent speaking of the city where I practised than 
with us, from reckless driving by small boys in charge 
of horses they were powerless to check or guide, by 
drunken carters, and from the evasion of the city bye- 
law respecting carrying lamps after dark. 

To set up in good style, a new-comer must take a neat 
house in a first-class street, paying 80 to 100 rent ; 
keep two servants ; have a carriage, and a coachman who 
will also keep his garden trim ; have his own stable ; a 
telephone, and consulting-rooms " down town," either 
at a chemist's, or separately. " Self-supporting " dis- 
pensaries do not pay. The poorest working-man will 
pay his fee of 2s. Qd. or 3s. Gd. cheerfully, and is too 
proud to accept any of that pauperising in medical 
charity that we observe in England. On the whole a 
new doctor obtains a practice more quickly in the 
colonies than in the old country, but there is not the 



PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCES. 225 

same stability about it, nor is there anything of the 
warm personal attachment to the family doctor, as to a 
family friend, that exists at Home. 



Diseases Prevalent among tlie Maoris, 

Although the natives in New Zealand do not trouble 
the pakeha doctor very much, yet my colleagues will, 
I am sure, not consider space wasted if I mention some 
professionally interesting details concerning them. 

In the years intervening between 1847 and 1853, 
Surgeon A. S. Thompson, of the 58th Foot Regiment, 
then serving in New Zealand, made copious notes of the 
diseases he observed and heard of as existing among 
the Maoris. His valuable records were given to the 
medical world in the British and Foreign Medico- 
Chirurgical Review; and as much of the information 
he gives us holds true of the Maori of to-day, I con- 
dense the most important of his observations, adding 
uiy own experience, and what I learned from other 
medical men who have had more to do with the " noble 
savage " than I have. 

There was a greater variety and a larger amount of 
imported and endemic disease among the natives then 
than there is now ; though even now, as I shall show 
later on, there is a great deal that is quite preventible. 
Fevers were then common, of a continued, not inter- 
mittent type, constituting seventy-four cases in every 
1000 cases of disease. Scarlet fever entered New 
Zealand in 1848, but did not spread. The natives 
have been always apt to catch infectious or contagious 
diseases, so this was a fortunate circumstance. 

Phthisis pulmonalis, following prolonged influenza, 
was not uncommon, the disease carrying off persons at 
all ages. 

Diseases of the skin, especially scabies, ringworm, 
and psoriasis, were then and are still common ; hence 
the discovery of one of the many healing powers of the 
liotoma hot springs. Scrofula was and is the bane of 

Q 



226 NEW ZEALAND. 

the whole race, though not now so universal, thanks to 
better food, as in the early days. It was caused by 
breathing impure air in crowded huts; by indolent 
uncleanly habits ; by bad food ; and by intermarriage 
with near and scrofulous relations. 

In those days cases of elephantiasis, or Lepra 
gangrsenosa, a true kind of leprosy, were sometimes 
seen. It was caused, Dr. Thompson thought, by the 
habit of eating putrid maize and half-rotten potatoes. 
Diseases of the Hver are now more common among the 
natives than they were forty years since, because of the 
alcoholic drinks consumed. I once treated the famous 
chief Wahamii, of Otorohanga, Waikato, a faithful ally 
of ours, for a disease of this kind, in the cause of which 
an excessive use of animal food, blended with a too 
great indulgence in alcohol, in producing, in addition to 
the liver derangement, an inordinate obesity. He was 
the finest specimen of a warrior chief I have seen. 

The diseases epilepsy, apoplexy, chorea, cancer, and 
ague were unknown. 

Wounds used to heal quickly: the natives used 
various vegetable or earthy applications, the favourite 
being an ointment of red ochre. Parturition was easy 
and rapid. 

Rheumatism was and is very common, caused by the 
utter recklessness of the Maoris about the situation of 
their dwellings, drying their wet clothes or mats, and 
so on. Very early in the history of the Maoris the 
curative powers of the hot baths and springs in this 
disease were discovered. Syphilis exists, but not of a 
virulent type, in both sexes. Its local manifestations 
are removed sooner by the hot mud-baths than by 
medicinal treatment. 

Melancholia, with a tendency to suicide, from the 
superstition of being bewitched, was common, and even 
now exists, though much more rarely, owing to the 
general spread of Christianity through the whole 
nation. 

The custom of tapu (chapter iii., p. 48) had certainly 
its sanitary uses, which unfortunately have not been 



PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCES. 227 

replaced, now that tapu is out of fashion, by that 
"cleanliness which is next unto godliness" which 
should be characteristic of a Christianized nation. 

The Maori of old time, believing that all sickness 
was caused by an atua or evil spirit entering the body, 
used to employ all kinds of violent measures to the 
sick man, in order to drive it out, such as rolling him 
for hours on the ground, placing baskets of stones on 
his abdomen, and so forth ; these well-meant exertions 
more often killing than curing the patient. 

But their mode of shampooing- the same as the lorni* 
lomi of the Hawaiian, (the basis of modern massage) ; 
their artificial steam-baths; and their extraordinary 
but successful method of resuscitating an apparently 
drowned person by holding him head downwards over 
the smoke of a fire, and then pouring hot water down 
his throat as soon as he could swallow all these were 
useful in disease. Being intelligent observers of the 
properties of native plants, the Maoris used various 
parts of the following shrubs in diseases and injuries : 
these may give some hints to those who are con- 
tinually seeking additions to the Materia Medica. 

Mesembryanthemum (Ficoidese) was used as a 
poultice for boils. 

Phormium tenax, the native flax, or more properly 
hemp (see p. 189), nat. ord. Liliaceae. The leaf was 
used for bandaging wounds ; the root and the gummy 
exudation for disorders of menstruation. 

Podocarpus, or Kaliikatea, the white Pine (Coniferib), 
a decoction of the leaves for urinary complaints. 

Piper excelsus, or Kawakawa (Piperaceae) for cuts, 
wounds, skin diseases, gonorrhoea, and in the hot steam 
baths. 

Dysoxylum spectabile, or Kohekohe (Meliacese) an 
infusion of the leaves to stop the secretion of milk in 
the breasts. 

Veronica, or Koromiko (Scrophulariacese) bruised 
leaves as poultice for ulcers. 

Cyathea, or tree-fern (Filicinere) the bruised pith 
as a poultice for swollen feet and for sore eyes. 

Q 2 



228 NEW ZEALAND. 

Sophora tetraptera, or Kowhai (Leguniinosse) the 
inner bark in Scabies. 

\ Dacrydium cupressinum, or Eimu (Coniferse) in- 
fusion of the bark for ulcers and wounds, 

Coriaria, or Tutu (Coriarise) leaves which are poi- 
sonous to cattle, and the leave 3 and twigs of the 
Leptospermum ericoides, or Manuka (Myrtacese), are 
used effectually to cure dysentery. 

Some of these therapeutic applications of native 
plants have been tried and confirmed by local practi- 
tioners. The Veronica seems scarcely ever to fail in 
relieving dysentery and diarrhoea. Another plant, the 
Brachyglottis repens, or Puka-puka, of the Nat. Ord. 
Compositse, has been found useful in Bright's disease of 
the kidneys and in " neuralgic " rheumatism. 

A curious kind of slow poisoning among the Maori 
old men and women by the Karaka berry is sometimes 
found. Its characteristic feature is a spastic con- 
traction of the flexor muscles of the arms and legs, not 
of the trunk muscles. There are no twitches or spasms. 
This phenomenon is produced by the imperfect cooking 
of the bean or berry whose dark inner skin (next to the 
albumen of the seed) contains a toxic alkaloid named 
Icarakine. If this skin is perfectly removed by long 
maceration in water, the berry is not only harmless 
but forms a nutritious food. 

I have not heard of any disease arising from the 
habit of the Maoris of eating fern-root, the pith of the 
Nikau, or cabbage palm, or the fungus, Hirncola. 
Poisoning by the bite of the Katipo, a small black spider 
marked by a red cross on its back, which haunts the 
clumps of grass near the sea, is more common among 
and more dreaded by the Maoris than by the white 
people. One case of chronic blood-poisoning by the 
bite of this insect the only venomous one with tne 
exception of the centipede, in New Zealanu came 
under my observation. A half-caste woman, aged 
about thirty-eight, consulted me for disease of the 
cartilaginous septum narium. She stated that two 
years before her visit to me a Katipo had bitten her 



PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCES. 



229 



hand ; the usual acute inflammation followed, and after 
the hand had completely healed, the mucous lining of 
the nostrils became ulcerated. This process went on 
deeper and deeper until the bones began to slough 
away. There being no history or visible trace of 
syphilis, I concluded that this sequela of Katipo bite, 
quite a rare one, was probably due to a metastasis of 
the blood-poison to the nose, acting virulently upon a 
scrofulous constitution. The immunity enjoyed by 
these islands from snakes and all kinds of poisonous 
insects except the Katipo and centipede is remarkable 
when we consider their proximity to Tasmania, 
Australia, and New Guinea, which are all characterized 
by these plagues. 

The children of half-castes frequently die of tuber- 
cular diseases. Dr. Thompson gives in his articles an 
interesting table comparing the mortality in various 
diseases among the Maoris of his day with the death- 
rate in Sheffield (as a specimen of a large densely 
populated English town), taking as a standard of com- 
parison the register of the Sheffield General Infirmary 
for twenty-two years previous to 1852. We can thus 
perceive that in five classes of disease the death-rate 
among the Maoris was much heavier than that of one of 
the most unhealthy and crowded towns in our country. 

In one thousand deaths from all causes there were 





Sheffield. 


Maoris of 
New 

Zealand. 


From 
n 

V 

)) 
> 






59 
119 

45 
109 
71 


82 
191 
70 
169 
119 


Rheumatism . 




Diseases of th 

> 






Stomach and Bowels . . 



In chapter iii. I have summarized the Registrar- 
general's report on the causes of the decrease of the 



230 NEW ZEALAND. 

native race. Since that was written I have received 
an interesting letter from my friend who, though a 
settler up in the north, has become a volunteer 
missionary among the Maoris of the Pakanae district, 
which gives valuable information on this point, which 
I will condense for the reader. Mr. Fell says that one 
prominent cause of the decline of the race is traceable 
to too early marriages, which are generally barren. 
He mentions one instance of a Maori bride of twelve 
and a bridegroom of twenty. In readjusting the 
ownership of a block of ground at Pakanae, formerly 
held by a hapu of 1000 adults, only fifty adult Maori 
owners could be found, and of these a large number 
were childless. " One principal reason," writes 
Mr. Fell, "of the very great mortality is from their 
sleeping on the ground all the year round. All whom 
we have met with, except the very young children, 
suffer from asthma, and the men especially seem to 
suffer from chest complaints and die young. We have 
one [Maori] now felling the bush for us ; he has 
pitched the tent we have lent him on the flat, and he 
sleeps on green ti-tree. . . . They never change their 
wet clothes." Contemporary evidence thus proves 
that the habits of the Maoris of old are continued to 
the present day, and are conducing to the extinction of 
the race. 

Diseases Prevalent among the Colonists. 

1. Acute Diseases. Of these the most common is 
enteric or typhoid fever, arising from the insanitary 
state of most of the New Zealand cities and towns. 
Settlers build where .and how they like, up and down 
the hills and along the valleys, which often constitute 
the natural features of a town site. The owner of an 
allotment may pack as many houses as he chooses 
upon it provided he makes what is euphemistically 
called " an earth closet " for each building. The lower 
classes of inhabitants are not very particular as to 
where the gleanings of the kitchen are deposited. 



PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCES. 231 

During the long hot summer of North New Zealand 
the decomposition of this refuse goes on, and when the 
first rains of winter fall there is some years an outbreak 
of typhoid fever lasting several months. It seems as 
if the bacteria (or other inateries morbi) were liberated 
from their nidus by the rain, and washed into the 
drinking water, or, in some way, found access into the 
bodies of their numerous victims, generally the young 
and apparently strong, of from fifteen to forty years 
of age. As a typhoid endemic has a knack of seizing 
now and then upon well-known families of ' good 
position, this plague, so preventible by proper drainage 
and good sanitation, every year excites much public 
outcry. But somehow corporations look more to the 
amount of their rates than to the health of the citizens, 
and little is done effectually to stop this drawback 
to life and health. In 1887 my friend, Dr. G. Toussaint 
Girdler, in an able paper read before the Athenaeum 
Society of Auckland on the Sanitary Condition of that 
City proved that out of six thousand inhabited houses 
within the city limits only six hundred were provided 
with water-closets, the rest having merely the " earth- 
closets," so called because the contractor who cleaned 
them out was supposed to supply fresh dry earth each 
time but did not ! He showed that if even the existing 
Municipal Regulations were made compulsory, and not 
merely permissive, many of the nuisances which 
generated diseases would be prevented, much sickness 
and many valuable lives saved. The reading of this 
Paper excited much attention, more especially as 
during the very time that typhoid fever was prevalent 
the city council of Auckland had, under the pretext of 
economy, reduced their sanitary staff, which was 
already too small in number. More efficient modes of 
collecting the refuse and of disposing of the sewage 
were earnestly discussed at a second meeting of the 
Athemeum; and the Mayor (A. E. T. Devore, Esq.) 
expressed himself in favour of a kiln, such as is used 
with excellent results in Manchester and Salford, 
where all the garbage is burnt up, and the products 



232 NEW ZEALAND. 

utilized. There has been a permanent improvement 
in the sanitary condition of Auckland since, and a 
lessening of the number of cases of typhoid. 

The tiatness of some cities, such as Christchurch, 
does not admit of a perfect system of underground 
drainage, but Auckland is eminently adapted for it. 
There seems to me no reason why both typhoid fever 
and diphtheria should not, by efficient sanitation, 
(which demands, unfortunately for the colony's position, 
a large expenditure), be banished from New Zealand. 
Although the highest mortality from typhoid fever 
in Auckland, where during the last two " seasons " 
it has averaged fifteen to twenty-two per cent., is 
much lower than the ordinary mortality from that 
disease in Melbourne and Sydney, the death-rate was 
far from encouraging. During five years of my 
practice I treated forty cases of typhoid fever, of which 
I lost only one a boy who died of a cerebral compli- 
cation five days after I was called in. There are few 
private nurses in the New Zealand towns whu are 
properly trained to nurse fever patients, and this is a 
great difficulty in the way of clinical success. 

I have never seen a case of true typhus fever in New 
Zealand, a fact which thus far corroborates the theory 
that typhus is the product of starvation, want of pure 
air, and overcrowding. 

No case of Asiatic cholera has been reported so far 
as my research extends in New Zealand, though cases 
of European cholera occur every summer, when the 
heat is unusually high and prolonged. 

The infectious Exanthemata are of a mild type in 
New Zealand. Although the compulsory clauses of 
the New Zealand Vaccination Act seem to be a dea^ 
letter, Small-pox has been so well excluded from the 
islands that it does not appear at all as a cause of 
death in the mortality records of the quinquennial 
period, 1881-1886. The genial climate permits of 
more complete ventilation of the sick-room during a 
much greater portion of the year than is possible in 
England, and this advantage limits the risk of 



PROFESSIONAL EXPEDIENCES. 233 

contagion or infection ; otherwise the wooden houses 
are certainly not so easily well disinfected as our brick 
and stone houses here. 

Many children grow up to adult age without ever 
having caught any of the Exanthemata. Once during 
my residenae there was a tremendous "scare" about 
small-pox, a steamer having a case on board brought 
from San Francisco, if I remember aright. All the 
passengers for Auckland were landed at Motuihi, the 
island where the quarantine station, a Government 
building, was situated. A rush to the doctors for 
vaccination took place. Having secured some pure 
and fresh calf lymph through the praiseworthy 
exertions of my energetic chemist, I vaccinated about 
sixty-six cases during that year with perfect satis- 
faction to the parents, some of whom held anti- 
vaccination opinions, and to the adults, whose con- 
stitutions all showed the need of re-vaccination by the 
vigorous way in which they "took." The gratifying 
results of the fright were, (1) that no case of small-pox 
occurred on shore ; (2) that the Motuihi station, then 
dirty and dilapidated, because so long unused, was 
cleaned, repaired, and made fairly decent for human 
beings. 

Croup and Diphtheria are deplorably common in the 
towns of the colony ; the former from the storms, rain, 
and high winds that occur, and the latter from mias- 
matic emanations from the animal and vegetable refuse 
heaps above described (p. 231). I remember one very 
sad instance of how diphtheria may be contracted from 
noxious emanations without any contact with previous 
cases of the disease. A fine little girl who, with her 
brother, had been playing about a certain street in the 
west of Auckland, and hovering about a ditch which 
had been cut into the clay subsoil for the purpose of 
laying gas-pipes, succumbed in a few days to malignant 
diphtheria. A few days after her death the brother 
showed this disease in the same intensity, and died 
after all that medical skill and attention could do for 
him, thus leaving the parents childless. That heaps of 



234 NEW ZEALAND. 

decomposing garbage will generate this disease I had a 
most painful experience in my own family when my 
son was very nearly carried off by this fell destroyer. 
I had no control whatever over the use of the vacant 
unfenced allotment next to my house where the 
miasma had been generated. 

I am not able to obtain comparative statistics of 
Diphtheria in the other colonies ; but it is a fact that 
during the five years preceding the census of 1886, the 
rate of mortality in New Zealand proceeding from 
specific febrile, and zymotic diseases was considerably 
less than in England and in the Australian colonies. 

Cases of irritant poisoning, sometimes fatal, caused 
by eating canned meat, half-decomposed or con- 
taminated by solder, are not uncommon. A sad case of 
poisoning by the formation of ptomaines in twice- 
cooked canned meat occurred in Parnell. Three lives 
of Maori clergymen were lost, and three white people 
made dangerously ill. 

Acute rheumatism, pneumonia, and pleurisy seldom 
reach the same intensity or duration that they exhibit 
in Britain. 

2. Chronic Diseases. The most important class of 
chronic diseases of which I must write are Pulmonary 
diseases, for the relief of which so many invalids come 
out from England to this colony. In chapters ii., iv., 
and v. I have given useful suggestions as to the 
suitability or unsuitability of certain Climatic Zones and 
localities for various certain chest complaints, and these 
may now be supplemented by some general observations 
deduced from experience on the subject. A study of 
those three chapters, of the maps accompanying this 
volume, and of the temperatures I have quoted in the 
text, will enable consulting physicians to indicate to 
their chest patients what part of New Zealand they 
should try on arrival, and what parts they should 
avoid. In general terms the north of Auckland 
district, and a few spots on the highest ranges of the 
hills -near Auckland city, offer in winter the best 
climate in New Zealand for real tubercular consumption 



PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCES. 235 

of the lungs or larynx, and for that very large class of 
cases which are chronic pneumonias in tuberculous or 
strumous constitutions, of which most of those cases 
benefitted or cured by sea voyages, or changes of 
climate, consist. 

If a poitrinaire, in whom phthisis pulmonalis has not 
advanced far into the second stage, will go out by the 
Cape to New Zealand, so as to arrive there in October 
or November, he will enjoy the glorious summer 
weather, and improve steadily, if he conducts himself 
carefully, until the middle of April of the next year, 
when the rains will have begun. He will be able to 
remain in Auckland, Taranaki, or Napier later in April 
or even into May than he would in other cities further 
south. In April or May he can sail away to Norfolk 
Island or to the Fijis, where he may bask in genial 
sunshine until summer once more returns to New 
Zealand. 

I knew a clergyman in Auckland who was in good 
health, fulfilling the duties of an important parish, 
married, with three healthy children, who owes his life 
to the local climate, having landed there fourteen years 
since with a cavity in one of his lungs. 

Another favourable case was that of a bank manager 
who came out from England about ten years since with 
phthisis pulmonalis in both lungs and frequent hsemo- 
ptysis. He steadily improved in Auckland, and became 
stout and strong. For five years he remained in good 
health, but the bank's arrangements compelling him to 
move off to Christchurch, the extremes of that climate 
disagreed with him ; his old disease broke out again, 
and he was a dead man in less than two years (I 
believe) from the time he left the northern city. None 
of his friends, myself included, doubted that he would 
have survived many years had he been able to remain 
in Auckland or North of it. 

A third case in which I felt much interest, though I 
had very little to do with its treatment, was that of a 
clergyman who came out to get a cure of a " weak 
throat " in fact, " Dysphonia Clericorum." At first the 



NEW ZEALAND. 

voice improved in a locality near Auckland, but after 
two winters, during which he felt obliged to do clerical 
duty, the constant use of his voice and the colds he 
occasionally took developed that terrible disease, real 
phthisis laryngea. Although the ravages of this disease 
in the larynx may be delayed by a pure, dry, warm air 
such as that of Egypt or Western Australia, I have 
never yet known a case recover. One patient I knew 
was kept alive for four years by the dry climate of 
California, but eventually he succumbed. 

Very often it has been noticed by medical men that 
the consumptive patient who does not improve under 
treatment in a certain part of the city, will begin to 
improve if he moves his residence on to a different 
subsoil say, from off clay to scoria ground. I may 
mention one homely matter which is often neglected. 
A chest invalid should always bring flannel under- 
clothing of two thicknesses, one for the winter and one 
for the summer, so that wool may be next the skin all 
the year round. Even the hottest days in the northern 
summer of New Zealand are followed by cool evenings, 
which visitors enjoy seated under the verandahs outside 
the house, when frequently chills are contracted by 
sensitive and too thinly clad invalids. 

Most practitioners of long experience in New 
Zealand have noticed the singular fact that, though 
phthisical sufferers from colder climates derive much 
benefit, even sometimes a cure, from that genial air, 
yet when this disease arises in a native-born New 
Zealander, it generally carries the victim off in a short 
time. I know one case in which only six months 
elapsed from the first manifestations of the disease 
(true phthisis) until death. 

In such cases the best change of climate is to the 
Darling Downs of Queensland, the nearest approach to 
Davos or St. Moritz that exists in Australasia. This 
health resort is also beneficial to " clerical sore throat." 

In estimating the mortality from phthisis pulmonalis 
in the records of the New Zealand Registrar-general, 
one must remember that the death-rate is largely 



PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCES. 2o7 

increased by the number of persons who arrive in the 
colony far advanced in the disease sometimes even in 
the third stage ; or with a very strong predisposition to 
consumption. In 1886, out of the total deaths from 
phthisis in New Zealand eleven per cent, were persons 
who had not resided three years in the colony. Yet 
with even the addition from this source, the death-rate 
from phthisis among the colonists in New Zealand is 
much less than in England, or than in any of the 
Australian colonies, except Western Australia. 

Invalids suffering from recurrent attacks of bron- 
chitis, chronic enlargement of the tonsils, and ordinary 
follicular sore-throat improve very much in the North 
Island. 

On the other hand, very few cases of asthma seem 
to do well in New Zealand. Apparently the all- 
pervading marine dampness of the atmosphere is the 
cause of this unsuitability. Bronchial asthma, however, 
I have known to be very much benefited by residence 
near the sea. 

Diseases caused by Entozoa, especially among young 
children, are much more common in New Zealand than 
at home. Tainia solium, Ascaris lumbricoides, and 
Ascaris vermicularis are found in both adults and 
children. Even infants at the breast have been known 
to pass Ascarides. 

Hydatids of the liver, caused by the echinococcus of 
the sheep passing into the human body, is a common 
disease in Australia, but rare in New Zealand. Some- 
times, however, cases are reported from the Middle 
Island, arising from the careless use of unwholesome 
mutton as food. The risk of acquiring this parasitic 
disease is the greater from the constant use of mutton 
alone for " the hands " at the sheep stations for many 
months consecutively. 

The frequent decay of teeth in adults, young children, 
and even in infants cutting their milk set, in Auckland 
arrests the attention of newly arrived medical men. 
This premature decay is due to the too complete 
absence of lime from the water supply. The rain water 



238 NEW ZEALAND. 

percolates through scoria and clay (chiefly the former) 
down to the springs from which the city water is taken, 
thus reaching the consumer in an almost too pure 
condition. The deeper springs which assist in the 
water supply are also almost chemically free from 
calcareous salts, therefore there is not pabulum enough 
supplied to the human frame for the efficient growth of 
the teeth and bones before the age at which animal 
food can be consumed and assimilated. Even the 
nursing mother's breast-milk is thus rendered deficient 
in this important ingredient. The only remedy is to 
give lime-water to the children, or to place a small 
lump of unslaked lime in the cistern or family filter. 
The latter is too rarely used in colonial households. 
There is a good opening in business for a cheap and 
good domestic filter in New Zealand, if the sale were 
briskly pushed. The plague of entozoa would be 
thereby much diminished. 

There are no malarial fevers in the colony ; hydro- 
phobia is unknown ; calculus and sunstroke are rare. 

3. Diseases arising directly or indirectly from the 
abuse (not the moderate use) of alcoholic liquors and 
tobacco deserve notice here. Although the city wherein 
I practised is not more intemperate than the other cities 
and towns of New Zealand, nor is the colony less sober, 
as a whole, than any or all of the other Australasian 
colonies, yet in a work designed to advance the best 
interests of the country I feel bound to raise a warning 
voice against these vices of habit, which engender 
disease. 

The habit of " nipping," upon which I have already 
adversely commented, is proved by statistics collected 
by Dr. George Hurley, in an able paper written for 
the Provincial Medical Journal, to largely increase the 
mortality from liver diseases (and from other diseases) 
among the classes of men most exposed to this tempta- 
tion in the old country. Among brewers, publicans, 
vintners, commercial travellers, barmen, and waiters, 
the death-rate from liver diseases is six times greater 
than it is among those not so apt to "nip;" for 



PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCES. 239 

example, maltsters, farmers, drapers, printers, and 
gardeners. I regret that I have not space for his full 
table of death-rates: it is novel and instructive. It 
tallies with my colonial experience ; and I can further 
add that among merchants, tradesmen, lawyers' clerks, 
and warehousemen there is a terrible amount of liver 
disease in the colony, quite preventible if this injurious 
habit were dropped. Open drunkenness seldom over- 
takes the victims of " nipping," but I have, alas ! 
seen many of them, often good and useful citizens of 
Auckland, die from cirrhosis of the liver, Bright's 
disease, or congestion of the brain, before they had lived 
out their regular " expectation of life." 

The sudden deaths by accident and suicide which 
seem so common in New Zealand are often cases in 
which an intoxicated man attempts to drive or ride 
along a precipitous road ; to cross a swollen river ; or 
to enter or leave a train while in motion ; or some rash 
action of that kind ; while suicides are frequently the 
result of the awful depression following a prolonged 
drinking bout. One must, in permitting, advising, 
or refusing alchoholic stimulants to patients, take into 
account the difference in the climatic zones of New 
Zealand. The only districts of New Zealand where 
I conceive whisky the newest Scotch is the favourite 
brand to be harmless are Otago, Southland, and West- 
land, all in the Middle Island. But in the more 
northern districts of the Middle and in the whole of 
the warmer North Island, brandy and whisky (however 
permissible in cases of illness) should be avoided in 
health. Of the two kinds of spirits, pure French 
brandy, if you can get it, is the less injurious. It is 
to be regretted that the very high duty upon Australian 
light wines, lager beer, and claret so enhances their 
cost as to place them beyond the means of any but the 
well-to-do. If ever North New Zealand becomes a 
wine-drinking country, after producing and maturing 
wholesome wine, which could be done, drunkenness will 
almost disappear, and the diseases I have mentioned 
will no longer form part of the Registrar's returns. 



240 NEW ZEALAND. 

I have never attended a native-born colonist for 
Delirium Tremens, a fact corroborative of the state- 
ment made on p. 217 (chapter xi.). My medical readers 
may note that I found it possible to bring through 
successfully many cases of typhoid fever without 
alcoholic stimulants, and, when these are absolutely 
necessary, it was found sufficient to give half the 
quantity usually ordered in similar cases in England. 
And so in the case of most acute diseases. When a 
man is thirsty in the summer, iced " lemon squash " or 
Zoedone will satisfy the craving. 

The abuse of tobacco by adults and the premature 
indulgence in smoking by young lads bring on or 
aggravate a number of diseases and derangements, 
which I must here touch upon, in order to explain 
my strong condemnation of these habits in the previous 
chapter. To some persons of a lymphatic temperament 
tobacco may really be a sedative, but to most people it 
is an excitant at first and a depressant afterwards. In 
the clear stimulating air of New Zealand no artificial 
stimulus to the nervous system is necessary. In 
summer smoking is apt to excite a thirst which water 
alone does not slake. My professional confreres know 
as well as I do, that premature or immoderate smoking 
produces the following derangements of the human 
economy : 

1st. Impairment of the primary digestion, caused by 
the excessive flow of saliva induced. 

2nd. A chronic nervousness and irritability, with 
irregular action of the heart, often accompanied with 
insomnia, or with a minor degree of amaurosis. 

3rd. Anaemia, with cardiac palpitation, due to the 
power nicotine possesses of preventing the transforma- 
tion of the pale into the red corpuscles of the blood. 

4th. An insidious disease of the kidneys, with albu- 
minuria, often undetected until far advanced, or ascribed 
to other causes. 

But I do not condemn the moderate use of tobacco 
in the winters of New Zealand. It is indeed a 
" solace " to the solitary miner, to the shepherd and to 



PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCES. 241 

the bushman. In the North Island smokers would do 
well to use the lightest " twist " or " returns ; " to smoke 
only after a meal; and where possible in the open 
air. 

Having alluded to the large amount of lunacy in New 
Zealand in chapter xi. I will now complete my refer- 
ence to the subject by giving a comparative table of 
statistics, which, so far as the year 1885 is concerned, 
places New Zealand in her right place as regards the 
prevalence of Mental Disease, as compared with other 
countries. I quote this table because an erroneous 
notion is abroad that there is more Mental Disease in 
this colony than in any other south of the line. 

It must be borne in mind, that in the official returns 
for New Zealand are, every year, included several persons 
who have been shipped off from England to the colony 
by their relatives, in order to get rid of them, and so 
throw the burden of their support upon the colony. 
Most of these lunatics improve during the sea voyage, 
but become more insane than ever after a month or 
two in the exciting or stimulating air of New Zealand. 
They are then taken charge of by the Government, 
and so troublesome had this practice become that 
some years since the Colonial Government got an 
Act passed through Parliament designed to put a stop 
to it. 

At the close of 1885 : 

Victoria had one lunatic for 297 of the general population. 

England and Wales , 339 
New South Wales 
New Zealand 



Queensland 
South Australia 



374 



401 
416 
439 



We thus perceive that New Zealand, dead-weighted 
as it is by the unfair English practice mentioned above, 
stands only fourth on the list, ranking below Victoria, 
England and Wales, and New South Wales as to the 
number of lunatics in proportion to the general mass of 
the people. I do not consider that the climate of New 
Zealand in any way conduces to the development of 

B 



NEW ZEALAND. 



latent mental disease; but if that disease is already 
manifested, it may become aggravated there. Did 
space permit of its insertion in this already too lengthy 
^section, I could show, by a comparative table of the 
vital statistics of all the Australasian colonies, that 
New Zealand is favoured with the highest birth-rate 
and the lowest death-rate taking a long series of years 
of them all. 

But, failing this, by merely quoting the Vital Sta- 
tistics of the sixteen largest New Zealand towns, for 
the few scattered months, which happen to be at hand, I 
can easily demonstrate that the natural increase, with- 
out any accretion from surplus of immigrants over 
emigrants, is remarkable. The viability of children 
born in New Zealand is greater than of those born in 
the more tropical Australian colonies. 

The sixteen large towns from which these figures are 
summarised are Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, 
Dunedin, Thames, New Plymouth, Napier, Wanganui, 
Nelson, Sydenham, Lyttelton, Timaru, Oamaru, Hoki- 
tika, Caversham, and Invercargill. 

In these towns there were registered the following 
number of births and deaths, a monthly record being 
furnished by the Kegistrar-general : 





Births. 


Deaths. 


Natural 
increase. 


In October, 1883 


562 


200 


362 


November, 1883 .... 
July, 1884 . 


468 
506 


135 

177 


333 
329 




511 


201 


310 


November, 1884 .... 
December, 1884 .... 
January, 1885 


467 
465 
501 


128 
165 
189 


339 
300 
312 


December, 1885 .... 


420 


188 


232 




3900 


1383 


2517 



PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCES. 243 

. The natural net increase in these sixteen towns for 
the eight scattered months quoted amounts to 2517, 
being some compensation for the falling-off in immi- 
gration during 1884 and 1885. 

There is no reason why an emigrant, when he settles 
in New Zealand should not live to a green old age, if he 
avoids steadily the injurious habits I have pointed out 
as the source of acquired disease, and lives on whole- 
some properly cooked food and purified water. In my 
experience New Zealand is far beyond California for 
health and enjoyment which is saying a good deal, for 
the latter is one of the most delightful countries in the 
world for travel or residence. I trust that both my 
medical and non-medical readers will agree with me 
that there is no place like 



NEW ZEALAND FOB THE EMIGRANT, INVALID, AND 
TOUEIST. 



244 



NEW ZEALAND. 



TABLE OF DISTANCES 
In nautical miles. 



OCEAN DISTANCES: Miles - 

Plymouth to Lyttelton .... 11 , 740 

Port Chalmers . . . . 11,930 

Wellington . . . 11,915 

Auckland . . . . 12,479 

Liverpool to Auckland via United States . 12,210 

Suez . . . 12,706 

Cape of Good Hope 14,073 

San Francisco to Auckland .... 5,910 

New York to Auckland via Cape Horn . . 11,860 

Panama Canal . 8,940 

INTER-COLONIAL : 

Melbourne to the Bluff Harbour . . .1,200 

Wellington . . . .1,479 

Sydney to Wellington . . . . .1,239 

Auckland .... . 1,281 

Fiji to Auckland . . . . .1,172 

Samoa to Auckland .... . 1,950 



NEW ZEALAND : 

Auckland to Russell . 
Gisborne . 

Wellington 

Gisborne to Napier 
Napier to Wellington . 
Wellington to Lyttelton 

Port Chalmers 

Picton . 

Nelson . 

New Plymouth 

Port Chalmers to the Bluff . 
Onehanga to New Plymouth 
New Plymouth to Nelson 
Nelson to Picton 

Westport . 
Weatport to Greymouth 
Greymouth to Hokitika 
Hokitika to Milford . 
Milford Sound to the Bluff . 



128 
301 
564 

86 
203 
175 
332 

53 
101 
172 
132 
135 
148 

85 
160 

63 

20 
190 
210 



INDEX. 



ABERDEEN, Earl, and Countess of, 

66 

Acclimatization in N.Z., 71, 72 
Academy of Music, An, 211 
Acheron Passage, 113, 114 
Advice to Emigrants, 6-10, 12, 

148 

Agricultural Land, 144 
Agriculture, School of, 162 
Akaroa, 33 
Akiteo Spring, 77 
Albertlaud Settlement, 155 
Alcoholic Liquors, Abuse of, 216, 

238-240 

Alderton, George E., 21 
Aldis, Professor, 161 
Alpine Plateau, The, 20, 37, 38 
Amateur Pho:ograp!iy, 209 
Science, 213 
Vocalists, 212 
Amberley, 77 
American Organs, 212 
Amuri, 78 
Analyses of Springs, 78, 81, 82, 87, 

88, 90, 91, 92, 93 
Analysis of Volcanic Ash, 128 
Anglo-American Unions, 3 
Anglo-Saxon Race, The, 1, 3, 56 
Aorangi, (Mt. Cook), 33 
Apero, Capt., 103, 108 
Arawa Tribe, The, 125 
Arthur River, 118 
Art Exhibitions, Local, 209 
Arts, Society of, 68, 210, 211 
Asbestos, Discovery of, 113 
Asthmatic Complaints, 37, 86, 

237 

Aspiring Mount, 109, 117 
Assignees in Bankruptcy, 175 
Asylums, Benevolent, 166 
Lunatic, 167, 218 



Ateamuri, 134 

Athenaeum, The Auckland, 68, 73, 
231 

Athletic Club Grounds, 69 

Atkinson, Sir Harry, 143, 151 

Atua, The, 46, 227 

Auckland, City of, 57-73 

Beauty of, 59, 62, 73 
Caricatured, 164, 165 
Choral Society, 66 
Climate, 23, 24, 235 
Grammar School, 71 
Free Library, 63, 65 
Geographical Position, 

57,58 

Harbour, 61, 63 
Institute and Museum, 68 
City Institutions, 63-73 
Music in, 67, 68 
Newspapers, 67 
Population, 58, 59 

Port of, 61, 62 
Savings Bank, 66 
Schools, 71 
Seat of the Government, 

59, 138 

Shipping, 61, 62 
Theatre, 69 
University College, 68, 

71, 161 

Y.M.C.A., 65, 66 
Y.W.C.A., 66 
Province. 20-23 
Acclimatization in, 71 
A vifauna of, 23 
Climate of, 24, 25 
Flora of, 22 
Vital Statistics, 57 

Aurora Australis, 86 

Australian v. New Zealand 
Climates, 15 



246 



INDEX. 



Australasian Science Association, 
213 

BAINBRIDGE, Edwin A., 125, 130- 
132 

Balclutha Schoolboy, A, 70 

Barker, Lady, 199 

Bates, E. Katherine, 214 

Bay of Islands, 77 
Plenty, 82, 85 

Bealey, 33 

Benefit Societies, 13, 223 

Bible-Beading in Schools, 158 
Translated into Maori, 45 

Binder twine, 196 

Birkenhead (Auckland), 63 

Black, Professor, 162 

Blair, W. N., 194 

Blenheim, 31 

Blomfield, Charles, 210 

Blueskin (Dunedin), 34 

Bonuses offered by Government, 
191 

Bourne, C. F., 159 

Bowen Falls, The, 116 

Breaksea Sound, 114 

Br< akwaters (Napier, New Ply- 
mouth and Timaru), 27, 171 

Brett's Almanac, 61, 195 

' Britain of the South,' 8 

Bronchitis, 25, 29, 237 

Brown, Capt., 213 

Brown, Professor F. D., 161, 162 

Bryce, the Hon. John, 49 

Building Societies, 13, 176 
Stone, 188 

' Bush,' beauty of the, 99, 102, 209 

Buying a Practice, 222 

Cabinet Ministers, trials of, 143, 

144 

Cadets, Volunteer, 204, 206 
" Caesar," 118 
Calliope Dock, 61, 171 
Campbell, Dr., 63 

the Pot-t, 9 
Cameron, Capt., Ill 
General, 55 
Cameron's Bath, 89 
Canterbury College, 162 

Plain-, 32 

Caswell Bay, Marble, 115, 188 
Cs well Sound, 114 
Cathedral City, the, 32 



Centralization, tendency to, 132 
Centrifugal Law of Migration, 3 
Centripetal Law of Migration, 3 
Chalybeate Springs, 77 
Chambers of Commerce, 194 
Cheeseman, Clara, 199 

T. F., 68 

Chinese in N.Z., 6, 193 
Choice of N.Z. Climates, 5, 19 
Cholera, Asiatic and European, 232 
Christchurch, City, 32, 194 
Cathedral, 32 

Children in, 32 

Climate, 32, 33 

Industrial Exhibi- 

tion, 192 

Population, 32, 58 

Climate of N. Zealand, 16-19 
Climate Zones of N.Z., 19-38, 239 
Clubs, Cuisine of, &c., 207 

Sick and Benefit, 223 
Coach Varnish, 186, 196 
Coal, varieties of, 188 
Coleoptera, 213 
Coode, Sir John, 27 
Cook's Strait, 16, 29 
Cook, Captain, 111 
Cook, Mount, 33 
Cook, Joseph, of Boston, 66, 208 
Copper, 188 
Corduroy Koads, 98 
Coromandel, 186 
Costley, the late Edward, 63, 64 
Industrial Home, 65 
Legacy, the, 64, 65 
Cows, average yearly value of, 

183 

Cowie, Bishop, 156 
Craters Extinct, 63, 124 
Criminal Class, the, 169 
Crisp, Miss (Mrs. Bond), 167 
Croup, 233 

Crown Lands ready for occupation, 
144 

Classified, 144 

Offices, 145 

Terms of Lease or 

Purchase, 145-149 
Crow's Nest, Wairakei, 134 
Cuttle Cove, 111 

Dairy Produce, 183 
Daldy, Captain, 65 
Dane, Major, 66 



INDEX. 



247 



Darling Downs (Queensland), 15, 

236 

Death by Accident, 239 
Decay of Teeth, Premature, 237 
Remedy for, 238 

Decorative Industry, 195 
Deferred Payment System, 146 
Delaware's Crew Rescued, 55 
Dentists in N.Z., 7 
Devil's Blow Hole, 106 
Devonport, 24, 60, 62, 79 
Diphtheria, 233, 234 
Direct Mail Steamers, 10, 61, 182 
Diseases curable by Hot Springs, 

94 
Diseases unsuited to Hot Springs, 

95 

Dobie, T., 21 
Doherty, T., 113 
Domain, the (Auckland), 60 
Domett, Alfred, 51, 101, 143. 
Drought, unknown in N.Z , 17 
Duuedin City, 34 

Buildings, 34 

Children in, 35 

Climate of, 34 

Club of, 35 

Population, 34 

Prevalent Complaints, 35 

Prices in, 13, 35 

Rainfall, 17, 35 

Scenery of, 34 

Temperature, 34 

Town Belt, 35 
Dusky Sound, 113 

EAKNSLAW Mount, 36, 109 

Economical Government, An, 141 

Economic Plants, Culture of, 21, 
191 

Eccentric Characters, 199 

Eden, Mount, 58, 59, 122 
View from, 59 

Edison's Magnetic Separator, 187 

Education System, 156-165 
Boards, 157 
Primary, 157, 158 
Secondary, 159 
Technical, 162 
University, 159-163 

Edwin, Captain, 17 

Effect of Climate on Character, 
203 

Effect of Climate on the Voice, 25 



Egmont, Mount, 18, 25, 135 

Ascent of, 26 

Emigration Societies, 5 
Employment of Children and 

Females, 194, 195 
Enamel-lined Butter-boxes, 183 
Entozoa, 237 

Eocene Period in N.Z., 123 
Equal Electoral Districts, 144 
Eruption of Tarawera, 

Earthquakes, 126 

Explosions, 127 

Height of Dust Column, 
127 

Loss of Life, 130-132 

Results of, 128-130 , 
" Evening Star," the, 58, 67 
Exanthemata, the, 232, 233 

FACTS showing return of prosperity, 

152, 153 
Fares to N.Z., 11 

Railway in N.Z., 170 
Fast Mail route to N.Z., 11, 61 
Fell, Henry Ellcray, 230 
Fiji Islands, 235 
Finances of N.Z., 141, 151-3 
Fires, Causes of, &c. 202, 203 
First Offenders' Probation Act, 

169 

Fissure, the Great, 123, 1 28 
Fish, Acclimatized 71, 72 

Native, 71, 111 
Fitzroy, Captain, 138, 141 
Flax (Phormium tenaxj, 46, 189, 

196, 227 

Folgefond Glacier (Norway), 117 
Food, Prices of, 13, 71 
Forbes, Archibald, 208 
Fornander, Dr., 48 
Foreign Workmen in Britain, 4 
Fox, Sir William, 70, 143, 218 
Free Trade Party, the, 192 
Free Libraries, 31, 65, 163, 164 
Friendly S icieties, 176 
French Puss, the, 31 
Froude, J. A., 19, 58 
Fruit-Preserving, 29, 190 
Fungus (Hirneola), 189, 2'28 
Furniture, 10, 190, 192 
Furnishing, Expense of, 13 

GAMBLING Spirit, the, 215 
Gaols, 168, 169 



248 



INDEX. 



Gardens, Auckland, 24 
George, Henry, 213 
George Sound, 115 
Germany's need of Colonies, 3 
Geysers, 75, 105, 129, 133 
Ginders, Dr. A., 75, 85, 87, 96 
Girdler, Dr. G. T., 231 
Gisborne, 27, 57, 145 
Glass-Works, 190 
Glenorcliy, 36 

" Globe-Trotter," 2, 198, 202 
Gold Mines, 186, 187 

Tax upon, 186 
Gordon, Sir Arthur, 141 
Gout, Thermal treatment of, 95 
Government Life Insurance, 174, 

175 
Government, Responsible, granted, 

139 

Governors of New Zealand, 141 
Graham, The late Robert, 45, 54, 

79 

Graham, Miss, 79 
" Grass " Widows and Widowers, 

201 
Great Britain, Annual Increase of, 

4 

Greater Britain, Pref., 1, 4 
Grazing Runs, 148 
Green, Rev. W. Spottiswoode, 33 
Grey, Sir George, K.C.B., 51, 54, 

63, 141, 143, 144, 194, 200 
Grey, collection of MSS., 64 

Maori Legends, 51 
Griffin, Consul G. W., 62, 73 
Gymnasia, 65, 205 

HEMATITE, Iron-Ore, 187 

Haifa (the Maori dance), 51 

Hall, Sir John, 143 

Hamner Plains Springs, 78 

Hapus (tribes), 40, 45, 49, 137 

Hare, sybtem of voting, 144 

Haszard, the late C. A., 103, 130 

Hastings (Napier), 27 

Haultain, Col., 05 

Havelock, 27 

Hawaiian Dialect, 41, 42 

Hawkes Bay, 26, 48 

Hector, Sir James, 82, 115, 163 

Hill, Rev. J. S., 65 

Hobson, Captain, First"Governor of 

New Zealand, 136, 138 
Hochstetter, Dr. F. von, 63, 122 



Hokitika, 17. 18, 33, 37 

" Home," used for Britain, 3, 4, &c. 

Home, a happy, in N.Z., 3, 8, 218 

Homestead system, the, 147 

Honey, exported, 183 

Hongi (rubbing noses), 52 

Hospitals of New Zealand, 165- 

167 
Hospital, the Auckland, G2, 65, 167 

. Dunedin, 163 
Hospital and Charitable Aid 

Boards, 166 
Ho wick, 25, 155 
Humour of W. J. Frater, 198 

D. Sutherland, 118 
Hururunui River, 27, 31 
Hydatids of the Liver, 237 
Hymn, Maori version of a, 44 

INCUBATOR, the, 70 

Immigrants wanted in N.Z., 6, 8, 9 

not wanted in N.Z., 

7,8 

" Indian summer," of Rotorua, 86 
Industrial exhibitions, 192 
Inlaid Cabinet Ware, 192 
Insomnia, 24 
Inspectors of Sheep and Rabbits, 

176 

Institute, the New Zealand, 163 
Institutes, Local Scientific, 163 
Inventiveness of the Colonists, 195 
Invercargill, 36, 37, 145 

Climate of, 37 

Iodine, Springs containing, 77 
Ironsand Deposits, 187 
Iron works, 187 

JACKSON, Samuel, Senr., 98 
Jervois, Sir W. F. D., G.C.M.G., 

C.B.,&c., 61, 141. 172 
" Joshua's," Taupe, 38 

KAINGA (village), 48, 50, 135 
Kaingaroa Plains, 133 
Kaiwaka Creek, 104, 107, 129 
Kaka, 23, 99, 209 
KuJ;apo, 23, 99 
Kakaramea Mt , 133 
Kanjo, 22, 77 
Karaka, 99, 228 

Poisonous effects of, 228 
Karakine (the alkaloid), 228 
Karahia (a spell), 48, 132 



INDEX. 



249 



Kaltikatea (White Pine), 185 
Katipo Spider, and effects of its 

bite, 209, 228, 229 
Kate and Sophia, guides, 102, 108 
Kauri, the, 18, 185, 202 

Gum, 185, 196 
Kauwhanga Spring, 89 
Kawau I, 69 
Kimberley Mount, 116 
" King Country," the, 27, 38, 45 
Kinloch, Lake Wakatipu, 36 
Kiwi, the, 23 
Kotekohe. 227 
Korero, 50, 51 
Korimako (Bell Bird) 23, 210 

Maori Journal, 44 
Kormniko, 53, 71, 227 
Korohotis, 92, 93 
Koura, 53, 71 

Krakatoa. Eruption, the, 121 
Kuirau Spring, 76 
Kuripapauga (Napier), 27 

LAKES of Otago, Fish in the, 71 
Lake Ada, 116, 118 

Manapouri, 109 

Ngahewa, 133 

Rotokakahi, 102, 104, 125 

Rotokawau, 94 

Rotomahana, 102-108, 129 

Rotomakiriri, 104 

Rotorua, 83-96, 100 

Takapuna, 62 

Tarawera, 103, 104 

Taupo, 27, 77, 84, 133,' 134 

Te Anau. 109 

Tikitapu, 102 

Wakatipu, 36, 42, 115, 119 
Land Tenure in N.Z., 144, 145 
Larrikinism, Causes and Cure, 204, 

205 

Laughing-Gas Bath, 89 
Lectures, successful in N.Z., 208 
Ledum palustre, 119 
Leprosy, 95, 226 
Lewis, Dr. T. H., 85, 87, 96 
Litliia in Springs, 82, 89, 90, 93 
Little Barrier Island, 23, 59 
Literature in N.Z., love of, 213 
Lithographic Stone (Dusky Sound), 

113 

Living, cost of, 12, 13 
Local Option, 169 
Lomond Ben, 36 



Lami-lomi, of Hawaii, 99, 257 
Long Sound, 112 
Loyalty of the Colonists, 140, 165 
Lunacy in N.Z., 168, 218, 241 
Lyttelton Port, 32 

MACKELVIE, the late J. T., 63, 66 
Macrae's Hotel, Wairoa, 102, 103, 

131. 

" Madame Rachel '' Bath, 88, 95 
Maire, black and white, 185 
Mana, 53, 54 
Manawatu Gorge, 27 
Maning, Judge, 45, 52, 98, 100, 

108 
Manuka or TV-tree, 60, 98, 104, 

22S 

Manukau Harbour, 25, 58 
Mauna Loa, 122 
Maungongaonga Mount, 133 
Maunsell, Archdeacon, 45 
Maoris, The, 39-56 

their appearance, 40 
character, 41, 45, 54 
customs, 48-54 
decline, 47, 230 
Missions among the, 42, 44, 

45, 55, 56 
Origin of, 39 
Marlborough Province, 31 
Martin, Lady, 55 
Mean Annual Rainfall, 17 

Temperature, 16 

Daily Range of do, 17 
Meat, Frozen, 182 

Tinned, Cured, Salted, 182, 

234 

Mechanics' Institutes, 213 
Medical Men, Number of, 7 

Prospects of, 7, 219- 

225 

Melancholia among Natives, 226 
Mercury (Cinnabar), 77, 188 
Mere (of Jade), 51, 54 
Meteorological Department, 17 
Midland Railway of N.Z., 33 
Militia Law, the, 206 
Milford Sound, 115-119 
Mills, James, 110 
Minett, T , 131 
Ministry, Frequent Changes of, 142, 

201 

Minor Industries, 190 
Mitre Ptak, 116, 117 



250 



INDEX. 



Moa, the (Dinornis), 23 

Mohi (Moses), 55 

Mount Eden, 59, 63 

Moreton, S. H., 117 

Morriusville, 81 

Motuihi, 59, 233 

Motutapu, 59. 69 

" Muggy " Weather, 18, 24 

Muller, George, 66 

Muru, 48, 49 

Music in Auckland, 68 

New Zealand 7, 211 
Musical Festival, A, 211 
Mutton Delicious, 182 

NAPA, Soda Spring, 77 
Napier, Agricultural Show at, 27 
Climate of, 26 
Population, 26 
Port of, " The Spit," 26 
Public Buildings, 27 
Subsoil of, 26 
Native Birds of N Z., 23, 209 
Lands Act, 145 
Court, 47, 137 
Remedies, 227, 228 
Necessity of Emigration for Eng- 
land, 4, 5 
Nelson, City, 29 

Climate of, 29, 30 
Export of Gold, 30 
hops, 30 
jam, 29 
Population of, 30 
New Grand Tour, the, 134, 135 
New Plymouth, 25, 26 
New Zealand, Area of, 16 

Birth-rate of, 6 

Climate, 16-19 

Colonization of, 138, 

139, 155 
for the Europeans, 9, 

194 

Population of, 7 

Public Debt, 141 
Herald, the, 67, 165 

Natural Resources of, 

196 

Society, 198, 199 

Shipping Co., 10 

University, 7, 159, 

160 

NgaruawaMfl, 42 
Ngauruhoe Volcano, 78, 121, 133 



Ngongotaha, Mt., 84 
Nikau Palm, 99, 228 
Niuafu Volcano, 122 
Norse wood, 139, 147 
North Island Trunk Railway, 58, 

135, 164 

Norwegian Immigrants, 139 
Normauby, Marquis of, 141 

OAMARU, 33, 188 

Oats, New Zealand, 184 

Obsidian, 103 

Ocean Beach (Dunedin), 31 

Ohaeawai, 77 

Ohinemutu, 91, 99, 100 

Oil Bath, the, 92, 93 

Onehunga, 58, 181, 187 

Onetapu Spring, 76, 78 

Onslow, Lord, 144 

Orange Culture, 21, 22 

Oruawhata Spring, 89 

Ostrich Farm (Auckland), 70 
Schoolboy's Essay on the, 70 

Otago Daily Times, 198 
Climate of, 34-36 
University, 159, 162, 163 

Otorohanga, 226 

Otumahike Spring, 76 

Outdoor Sports, 69, 205 

Outfit for the Emigrant, 9, 10 
Medical man, 222, 223 

Oxford, 85 

PAHUA Spring, 77, 78 

" Paiukiller " Spring, the, 89, 90 

Pakeha, 45 

Pakeha-Maori, 45 

Pahnerston North, 27, 28 
Climate of, 28 
Boating at, 28 

Panama Canal, 58 

Paper Mills, (Duuedin, Ma taura) 190 

Parihaka, 49 

Parnell Orphan Asylum, 64 

Pastoral Runs, 148 

Patent Laws of N.Z., 195 

Payton, E. W., 214, 215, 217 

Pembroke Glacier, the, 117 

Pt troleum Springs, 188, 190 

Phthisis Laryngea, 236 

pulmonalis, 225, 23G, 237 
cases of, 235 

mortality, 267 



INDEX. 



251 



Phthisis pulraonalis, localities suit- 
able for, 20, 22, 26, 29, 231 

Phthisis pulmonalis, localities un- 
suitable for, 35, 37, 38 

Pianos everywhere, 212 

Picton, climate of, 31 
Herrings, 30 

Pink Cauldron of Waiotnpu, 133 
Terrace, the, 107, 129, 210 

Poetry in N.Z., 212 

Police, the, 169 

Pohutakawa, 99 

Port Chalmers, 111, 177 

Pounett, Professor, 161 

Post Office, 184 

Postage, rates of, 172 

Potatoes, 184 

Poverty Bay, 48 

Praed, Mrs. Campbell, 199 

Preservation Inlet, 111, 112 

Priest's Bath, the, 87, 88 

Proctor, the late R. A., 208 

Protective Tariff, the, 192, 195 

Proucle, Robert, 98 

Psoriasis. Thermal Treatment of, 
95, 96 ' 

Public Works Policy, 150 

Puhoi (Waiwera), 139 

Puka-puka, 99, 228 

Pumice, deposit of TaupoZone, 123 
passing into Obsidian, 123 

Puriri Spring, 77 

Puriri tree, 99, 185, 190 

QUARANTINE station, 233 

Queen's assent to Colonial Acts, 
140 

Queen's disallowance of Colonial 
Acts, 141 

Queen Charlotte's Sound, 30 

Queenstown, 35 

Climate of, 36 

Earthquake at, 36 

., Scenery around, 36 

Queen Street, Auckland, 59, 63 

RAILWAYS of N.Z. 
Ralph, Dr. T. S., 125 
Rangi (First Maori Convert), 45 
Rangitoto Mt, 62 
Raratongan Dialect, 41 
Eata. the, 112. 185 
Reductions in Government Expen- 
diture, 141, 142 



Registrar-General's report, 47, 154, 
169 

Registration, Medical, 223 

Religion, (of all Denominations). 
139. 153-156 

Reischek, A., 118 

Remittance men, 62, 217 

Remueta, 59, 62 

Resemblance of N.Z. to Italy, 16. 
123 

Resuscitation of apparently 
drowned, by the natives, 227 

Revenue, Surplus over Expendi- 
ture, 153 

Rewa-rewa, 99, 185, 190 

Rheumatism, Thermal Treatment 
of, 80, 94, 95, 96 

Richardson, Dr. B. W., 217 

Richmond, Hon. J. C., 36 

Riinutaka Pass, the, 170 

Bimu, 99, 112, 190, 228 

Rinking, 206, 207 

Rock of the Taipo, 104 

Rotomahaua, Great Crater of, 128 

Robinson, Sir Hercules, 141 

Rotorua District, 84 
" Season " 86, 87 
Township, 83-87 

Routes to New Zealand, 10, 11 

Ruapehu, Mount, 28, 76, 78, 82 

SAILORS' Rests, 177 
Sailors' Homes, 65, 177 
Sala, G. A., 208 
Salutation, the Native, 43 
Samoan Dialect, 41 
Sandflies and their bite, 119 
Scarlet Fever, 225 
Schmitt, Herr Carl. G8 
Schools, Native, is 
School of Applied Science, 162 

Forestry, 22 
Sects. Harmony among the, 155 
Self-Help Emigration Societies, 5 
Selwyn, Bishop, G. A.. 54, 155 
Sequence of Volcanic Events 

(1883-6) preceding Tarawera, 

122 

Settlement of the Chief Towns. 139 
Seventy-Mile-Bush, 27 
Sewell, Hon. Henry, 143 
" Shilling-a-Month Men," 204 
Shortland, Lieut-Col. 138 
Sibilants in Maori, Absence of, 41 



252 



INDEX. 



Silver, Export of, 186 
Sinclair, Captain, 110, 115 
Skey, F. C., Analyst, 76, 86} 
Skins and Hides, Export of, 122, 

183 
Skin Diseases, Cured by the 

Springy 94, 95 
" Slain by Drink," 218 
Smallpox in N.Z., 233 
Shaw, Seville, and Albion Co., 10 
Smith, S. Percy, F.R G.S., 123, 128 
Social Life, Refinement of, 205 
Socialistic Revolution, Danger of, 4 
Sounds, West Coast. The, 109-119 
Southern Alps, 18, 32 
Southland, Province, 36, 37 
Spectral Canoe, Story, 125 
Spinach, Discovery of, 113 
Spout Bath, the, 92 
Stafford, Sir Edward, 143 
State-Regulated Emigration, 5 
Stout, Sir Robert, 143 
Stonewall Jarkson Bath, 90 
Sub-Tropical Fruits, 21 
Sunday Closing of Public-houses, 70 
Supreme Court, the, 168 
Sutherland Fall, the, 116 
Svartisen Glacier (Norway), 117 
Synod of the Church of England in 

New Zealand, 156 

TABLE of Distances, 244 

Taj-Mahal of Agra, 106 

Tamati-Waka-Nene, 136 

Tanekaha Bark (Phyllodadus), 189 

Tangi, 48, 52, 53 

Tapu, 40, 48, 226 

Taranaki, Climate of, 17, 25, 26, 

37 

Tarawera Mountain, 63, 124 
River, 104, 129 
Spring, 77 
Steamer, 109-118 
Tatooing, 41 
Tauhara Mt., 133 

Taupo Volcanic Zone, 20, 37, 38, 123 
Tauranga, 85, 94, 96, 108, 126 
Tawhiao, " King," 49, 50 
Tawhai, the late Graham, 55 
Technical Education, 162 
Te Ariki, 104, 126,130 

Aroha, 81, 82 

Aute, 27 

Heu-Heu, 135 



Te Ika o Main, 51, 123 

Kute JSpring, 93 

Moura, 130 

Ngae, 52, 108 

Reinga, 53 

Tapui, 92 

Tarata, 104 

Whiti, 49 

Telegrams " Delayed," 173 
Telephones, 67, 173, 221 
Temperance Societies, 169 
Terraces Destroyed, the, 129 
Thames Gold Mines, 186, 187 
Thermal Springs District Act, 84 
Thomas, Professor A. P. W., 161 
Thompson, Surgeon A. S., 225, 229 
Thunderstorms, 37 
Tikitere, 93-95 
Timaru, 33 
Tin, 188 
Tiri-Tiri, 59 

Tobacco, Abuse of, 216, 240 
Tohunga, 48, 132 

Tougariro, Mount, 16, 82, 133, 135 
Totara, 99, 185 
Totalisator, Evil of the, 215 
Tourists' Tales, 198 
Towsey, A. J., Ill, 114 
Trust Office, Public, 175 
Tuhoto, the Tohunga, 48, 132 
Tuhourangi Tribe, the, 108, 124 
Tui (Parson Bird), 23, 99, 209 
Tupakihi, 99 
Turikore Spring, 92 
Tweeds, New Zealand, 181 
Typhoid Fever, 230-232 
Tylor, Dr. E. B., 48 

UNION S.S. Co., 61, 110, 149 
United Kingdom Alliance, 218 
United States, the, 196, 197, 218 
Ups and Downs ' of Colonial Life, 

201 
Utu, 48, 49 

VACCINATION, 232, 233 

with Calf Lymph, 233 

Vancouver, 113 
Village Settlement, 147 
Viniculture, 21, 191. 194, 239 
Vital Statistics, 57, 58, 241, 242 
Vogel, Sir Julius, 142, 143, 150 
Volcanic Eruption of Tarawera, 
126-128 



INDEX. 



253 



Volcanic Extinct Craters, 63, 124 

Ash, Dust, and Mud, 
127-129 

Volcanoes of the Pacific, 120, 121 
Volunteers, 206 

WAGES in New Zealand, 12, 193 
Wage-earning Students, 160 
Wahanui (Maori Chief), 226 
Wahi-tapu, 48 
Waiheke I., 62 
Wailiou River, 81 
Waihunuhunukuri Spring, 91 
Waikato, 71, 98 
Waikite, 91 
Waimarino, 135 
Waiorongornai, 81 
Wai-o-tapu Valley, 108, 133 

Pink Cauldron, 133 

White Terrace, 133 
Waipu Caves, the, 22 
Wairakei, 134 
Waiarapa, 71 
Wairoa (Tarawera), 102, 126, 129, 

130 

Waitakerei, 197 
Waitaki, S.S., 98 
Waitangi, Treaty of, 136, 137 
Waitemata, 5 1 *, 59, 63 
Waiwera, 78-81 
Wangaehu, River, 78 
Wanganui, 28 

Falls, 135 

River, 27, 135 
Wasley of Waitakerei, 199 
Watchman, the, 63 
Waterhouse, Hon. G. M., 143 
Weather Stations, 17 
Weld, Sir Frederick A., 28, 59, 

143 
Wellington, 28 

Climate, 28 

Earthquakes, 28, 164 

Harbour, 29 

Legislature at, 207 

Population, 29 

Rainfall, 17, 28 
" Season," the, 207 
West Coast Sounds, 108-119 
Fishes, 111 
Flora, 112 
Wetland, Climate of, 33 
Westport Coal, 188 



Wet Jacket Arm, 114 
Whaling Industry, 190 
Whakarewarewa, 86, 92, 93, 130 
Wliaiigapipiro Spring, 88 
Whangarei, 21, 22 
Whangaroa, 21 

U'hare (hut), 43. 47, 92, 94, 101 
Whare-kura (temple), 40 
Whare-puni (council-room), 50 
Wheat, Exported, 184 
land sown in, 183 
yield per acre, 181 
Whitaker, Sir Frederick, 143, 144 
Whitebait in the Rivers, 71 
White Island (solfataraj, 121, 122 
White Terrace, the, 104-108, 129 
Williams, Rev. Henry, 136 
Withy, Edward, M. H. R., 192 
Wonderland of North Island, 98- 

108 
Middle Island.1 08- 

109 

the NEW, 132-135 

Woods, Ornamental Native, 185, 

192 
Woodville, 27 

Climate, 28 
Wool, Export of, 180, 181 

favourite staples of, 180 
Woollen Goods of N.Z., 181 

Mills of N.Z., 181 
Works and Manufactories (1881-6), 

191 

Worthington, Henry, 114 
Wounds, how treated by natives, 

226 
Wright, Dr. A., 82 

YOUNG Men's Christian Association 
of Auckland, 65, 66 

Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tion, 66 

Young New Zealand 
Artistic Taste of, 210, 211 
Inventiveness of, 195 
Sobriety of, 217, 240 
Stoicism of, 203, 204 

ZONES OF CLIMATE, 19, 20 
Zone No I., 20-27 

No. II., 27-31 

No. III.. 31-37 

No. IV., 20, 37, 38 



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The Earth to the Moon and a 


Michael Strogoff 
Dick Sands, the Boy Captain . 
Five Weeks in a Balloon . . . 
Adventures of Three English- 
men and Three Russians . . 
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Godfrey Morgan 


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The Archipelago on Fire . . . 
The Vanished Diamond . . . 
Mathias Sandorf 


The Lottery Ticket 


The Clipper of the Clouds . . 
North against South .... 
Adrift in the Pacific .... 
The Flight to France .... 
The Purchase of the North Pole 
A Family without a Name . . 



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Sampson Low, Marslon, fir* Co.'s List of Publications. 31 

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retrospect. Svo, 12s. 
Westoby ( W. A. S.), Descriptive Catalogue of $o Years' Postage 

Stamps in Great Britain and Ireland. Svo, $s. 
Wheatley (H. B.} Remarkable Bindings in the British Museum. 

Reproductions in Colour, 94^. 6d., jy. 6d., and 63^. 
White (J.} Ancient History of the Maori; Mythology, 6-v. 

Vols. I.-IV. Svo, ioj. 6d. each. 
- (R. Grant) England Without and Within. Crown Svo, 

ID*. 6</. 

E.very-day English. ios. 6d. 

Fateof Mansfield Humphreys, &c. Cr. Svo, 6.r. 

Studies in Shakespeare, ios. 6d. 



32 Sampson Low, Mars ton, & Co.'s List of Publications, 

White (R. Grant) Words and their Uses. New Edit., crown 

8vo, 5*. 
Whitney (Mrs.) See Low's STANDARD SERIES. 

Whittier (f. G.) The Kings Missive, and later Poems. i8mo, 

choice parchment cover, $s. 6d. 
St. Gregory's Guest, 6r. Recent Poems. $s. 

William I. and the German Empire. By G. BARNETT SMITH. 
New Edition, 3^. 6</. 

Willis-Bund (J.) Salmon Problems, y. 6d.; boards, 2s. 6d. 
Wills (Dr. C. /.) Persia as it is. Crown 8vo, 8*. 6d. 

Wills, A Few Hints on Proving, without Professional Assistance. 
By a PROBATE COURT OFFICIAL. 8th Edition, revised, with Forms 
of Wills, Residuary Accounts, &c. Fcap. 8vo, cloth gilt, is. 

Wilmet-Buxton (Ethel M.) Wee Folk, Good Folk : a Fantasy. 

Illust, fcap. 410, 5.?. 
Winder (Frederick Horatio) Lost in Africa : a Yarn of Adven- 

ture. Illust., cr. 8vo, 6s. 

Winsor (Justin) Narrative and Critical History of America. 
8 vols., 30.?. each ; large paper, per vol., 63.?. 

Woolsey. Introduction to International Law. 5th Ed., 1 8 s. 
Woolson (Constance F.~) See Low's STANDARD NOVELS. 
Wright (T.) Town of Cowper, Olney, dfc. 6s. 

Written to Order ; the Journeyings of an Irresponsible Egotist. 
By the Author of " A Day of my Life at Eton." Crown Svo, 6s. 



HonKon: 

SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEARLE, & RIVINGTON, 

t. ghmstan's Dorset , 
FETTER LANE, FLEET STREET. K.C.